Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Part III:
Inductive Reasoning and Hilda Taba.
Attacking Patriarchal Education.
SCRIPTURAL EXAMPLES OF: DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING
WHEN INDUCTIVE REASONING IS USED IN THE CHURCH
HOW INDUCTIVE REASONING IS BEING USED IN THE CHURCH
REVIEW PREVIOUS ARTICLES ON DEDUCTIVE-INDUCTIVE REASONING
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART I
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART II
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING
SCRIPTURAL EXAMPLES OF:
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING
Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
2 Peter 1:20, 21
And when they had brought them, they set them before the council: and the high priest asked them, Saying, Did not we straitly command you that ye should not teach in this name? and, behold, ye have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine, and intend to bring this man's blood upon us. Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men. Acts 5:27-29
But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him. Hebrews 11:6
|Believers||Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear. Hebrews 11:3
Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it. Proverbs 22:6
And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. Deuteronomy 6:6-7
And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. Ephesians 6:4
And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another. Romans 15:14
Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ; As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance: But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy. 1 Peter 1:13-16
But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. A man that is an heretic after the first and second admonition reject; Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself. Titus 3:9-11
And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. Hebrews 12:5, 6
|Abel||By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh. Hebrews 11:4|
|Noah||But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he. And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Genesis 6:8, 13, 14, 22; 7:1
By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith. Hebrews 11:7
|Abraham||By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son. Hebrews 11:8, 17|
|Moses||By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment. By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter; Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompense of the reward. By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible. Through faith he kept the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the firstborn should touch them. By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned. Hebrews 11:23-29
|Caleb||And Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it. And Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that searched the land, rent their clothes: And they spake unto all the company of the children of Israel, saying, The land, which we passed through to search it, is an exceeding good land. If the LORD delight in us, then he will bring us into this land, and give it us; a land which floweth with milk and honey. Only rebel not ye against the LORD, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us: their defence is departed from them, and the LORD is with us: fear them not. But all the congregation bade stone them with stones. Numbers 13:30; 14:6-10|
|Isaiah||Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts. For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little: Isaiah 28:9-10|
|David to Solomon||Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged Solomon his son, saying, I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and show thyself a man; And keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself: That the LORD may continue his word which he spake concerning me, saying, If thy children take heed to their way, to walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail thee (said he) a man on the throne of Israel. 1 King 2:1-4
And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind: for the LORD searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever. 1 Chronicles 28:9
|Jesus||I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me. John 5:30
For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father who sent me, he gave me commandment what I should say, and what I should speak. John 12:49
|Jesus to Peter||So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep. John 21:15-17
And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. Genesis 3:6
|Cain||And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him. And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. Genesis 4:6-8
Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 1 John 3:12
|Pre-flood world||And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 6:5|
|Post-flood world||And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. Genesis 8:21|
|Tower of Babel||And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. Genesis 11:4, 6, 9|
|Spies & the children of Israel||But the men that went up with him said, We be not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we. And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had searched unto the children of Israel, saying, The land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature. And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight. Numbers 13:31-33
And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept that night. And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron: and the whole congregation said unto them, Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would God we had died in this wilderness! And wherefore hath the LORD brought us unto this land, to fall by the sword, that our wives and our children should be a prey? were it not better for us to return into Egypt? And they said one to another, Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt. Numbers 14:1-4
|Eli's sons||Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the LORD. And the priests' custom with the people was, that, when any man offered sacrifice, [,it is most holy. Leviticus 7:1 signified the atonement of the Savior!] the priest's servant came, while the flesh was in seething, with a fleshhook of three teeth in his hand; And he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot; all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself. So they did in Shiloh, unto all the Israelites that came thither. Also before they burnt the fat, [And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar; Leviticus 7:31] the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give flesh to roast for the priest; for he will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw. And if any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and then take as much as thy soul desireth; then he would answer him, Nay; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force. Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the LORD: for men abhorred the offering of the LORD. Isaiah 2:12-17 [Brackets added]|
|King Saul||But Saul and the people spared Agag, and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings, and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them: but every thing that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly. Then came the word of the LORD unto Samuel, saying, It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the LORD all night. And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning, it was told Samuel, saying, Saul came to Carmel, and, behold, he set him up a place, and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal. And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said unto him, Blessed be thou of the LORD: I have performed the commandment of the LORD. And Samuel said, What meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears, and the lowing of the oxen which I hear? And Saul said, They have brought them from the Amalekites: for the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God; and the rest we have utterly destroyed. Then Samuel said unto Saul, Stay, and I will tell thee what the LORD hath said to me this night. And he said unto him, Say on. And Samuel said, When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed thee king over Israel? And the LORD sent thee on a journey, and said, Go and utterly destroy the sinners the Amalekites, and fight against them until they be consumed. Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the LORD, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the LORD? And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. But the people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God in Gilgal. And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams. For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king. And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned: for I have transgressed the commandment of the LORD, and thy words: because I feared the people, and obeyed their voice. Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD. Isaiah 15:9-25
2 Peter 2:1-9
But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly; And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned them with an overthrow, making them an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly; And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: (For that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;)
2 Peter 2:10-17
The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished: But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, selfwilled, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities. Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord. But these, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they understand not; and shall utterly perish in their own corruption; And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings while they feast with you; Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children: Which have forsaken the right way, and are gone astray, following the way of Balaam the son of Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness; But was rebuked for his iniquity: the dumb ass speaking with man's voice forbad the madness of the prophet. These are wells without water, clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.
2 Peter 2:18-22
For when they speak great swelling words of vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, through much wantonness, those that were clean escaped from them who live in error. While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage. For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning. For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after they have known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them. But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire.
1 Thessalonians 2:3-12
Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming: Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.
For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath showed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
1 Timothy 3:1-17
This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away. For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts, Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was. But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me.
Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived. But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.
1 John 2:1-29
My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 1 John 2:1, 2
And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him. But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him. He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked. 1 John 2:3-6
Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old commandment which ye had from the beginning. The old commandment is the word which ye have heard from the beginning. Again, a new commandment I write unto you, which thing is true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth. He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness even until now. He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him. But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes. 1 John 2:7-11
I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake. I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the wicked one. I write unto you, little children, because ye have known the Father. I have written unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I have written unto you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked one. 1 John 2:12-14
Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever. 1 John 2:15-17
Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us. 1 John 2:18, 19
But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things. I have not written unto you because ye know not the truth, but because ye know it, and that no lie is of the truth. Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son. Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father: (but) he that acknowledgeth the Son hath the Father also. Let that therefore abide in you, which ye have heard from the beginning. If that which ye have heard from the beginning shall remain in you, ye also shall continue in the Son, and in the Father. And this is the promise that he hath promised us, even eternal life. 1 John 2:20-25
These things have I written unto you concerning them that seduce you. But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. 1 John 2:26, 27
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART I
(Complete Article on Deductive-Inductive Reasoning Part I)
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART II
(Complete Article on Deductive-Inductive Reasoning Part II)
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART III
DEUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART I
(Excerpts from Deductive-Inductive Reasoning Part I)
To Compare or to Contrast that is the question.
Understanding the New World Order.
by Dean Gotcher
UN Charter: "It is proposed that no facts or opinion be considered by the Congress unless the facts and opinions be the established consensus of a group of collaborators." Harry Stack Sullivan, The Fusion of Psychiatry and Social Science, Norton, NY, 1964, p. 275
"We must develop persons who see non-influencability of private convictions in joint deliberations as a vice rather than a virtue." Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change ["non-influencability of private convictions" means any person with absolutes who uses deductive reasoning―a principled person.]
"Deductive reasoning holds to a very high standard of correctness ... In a deductive argument, the truth of the premises is supposed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion; the truth of its premise guarantees the truth of its conclusion, there is no middle ground."
Deductive reasoning is the process of:
1. taking a law or premise as is, as a priori (not depended upon prior experience or experimentation "not by human interpretation"),
2. accepting it as certain (unquestionable) and applicable in all cases (universal,) known as a categorical imperative, and
3. applying it to a specific case using valid syllogisms.
Examples of valid syllogism or sound logic are: if A=B and C=B then A=C; if A=B and C≠B then C≠A.
Didactic-Teach to Facts.
Contrast―Do not compromise the truth.―either/or, "is"/"not"
"Two plus two is four and can not equal any other number."
"... in an inductive argument, the truth of the premises merely makes it probable that the conclusion is true." Garth Kemerling 2002.
The inductive method. This approach also involves three steps: generating theories and hypotheses
1. Observe the world.
2. Search for a pattern in what is observed.
3. Make a generalization about what is occurring."
Compare―Find what is similar.―"It seems to to us," "We feel," We think."
"Because man and monkey are similar, we theorize that man evolved from the monkey."
Theories are treated as a fact and facts are treated as a theories.
(Don't let the facts that differentiate get in the way of common-ism, universal-ism or "Don't let the facts interfere with the perception, the illusion.")
A LIBERAL INDUCTIVE DEFINITION OF DEDUCTIVE REASONING
PUTTING "THEORY OR HYPOTHESIS" IN PLACE OF A PRIORI
The deductive method involves the following three steps: testing theories and hypotheses
1. State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature).
2. Collect data to test the hypothesis.
3. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis.
"As I tried the sociometric system first on the universe and on the concept of God, its first manifesto was a revolutionary religion, a change of the idea of the universe and the idea of God. The god of Jesus was further extended, the son 'withered away' until nothing was left except the universal creativity of the Godhead and only one commandment: To each according to what he is (an all-inclusive acceptance of the individual 'as he is).'" J. L Moreno Who Shall Survive? (J. L Moreno, a Marxist, is known as the father of role-playing, a procedure used in all institutions of society today.)
DEDUCTIVE REASONING - INDUCTIVE REASONING
|Jesus in the Temptations: "It is written ..."||EVE||Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs||All that is of the World|
|"Man does not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God."||Good for Food||Physiological needs||Lust of Flesh|
|"Thou shalt worship the Lord Thy God, Him only shalt thou worship."||Pleasing to the Eyes||Self esteem needs||Lust of Eyes|
|"Thou shalt not tempt the Lord Thy God."||Desired to Make one Wise||Self Actualization needs (Purpose driven)||Pride of Life|
"Self-actualizing people have to a large extent transcended the values of their culture. They are not so much merely Americans as they are world citizens, members of the human species first and foremost." A. H. Maslow The Further Reaches of Human Nature
"I've decided to get into the World Federalists, become pro-UN . . . One World. A world government with world-shared values . . . Until sovereignty is given up little by little by "nations." This is a realistic combination of the Marxian version and the Humanistic." The Journals of Abraham Maslow, ed. Richard J. Lowry, p. 132. June 1982
Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. 2 Corinthians 6:14-18
They are of the world: therefore speak they of the world, and the world heareth them. We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us; he that is not of God heareth not us. Hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error. 1 John 4:5, 6
I have given them thy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil. They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth. As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world. And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth. Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word; That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me. John 17:14-23
Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God. James 4:4
For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning. 2 Peter 2:20
I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators: Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world. But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. 1 Corinthians 5:9-11
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART II
(excerpts from Deductive-Inductive Reasoning Part II)
Inductive Reasoning and Karl Marx;
Attacking the Patriarchal Family.
by Dean Gotcher
|deductive-inductive-confusion||Individual Man-God||MATRIARCHAL PRAXIS|
|Inductive-deductive-cycle||Individual Man-Collective Mankind||HERESIARCHAL PRAXIS|
According to inductive reasoning, guilt is the consequence of the child learning to reason deductively. This prevents the child from identifying with his true nature, his universal (carnal-social) nature. Deductive reasoning must be overcome if he is to be emancipated, if he is to be free to think and live inductively, to be his "true person."
in agreement with deductive reasoning
How those who think inductively see the role of the conscience.
"What we call ‘conscience' perpetuates inside of us our bondage to past objects now part of ourselves: ..." Norman O. Brown Life Against Death
"The guilty conscience is formed in childhood by the incorporation of the parents and the wish to be father of oneself." Norman O. Brown Life Against Death
"The most effective method for weakening the child's will is to arouse his sense of guilt." "The most important symptom of the defeat in the fight for oneself is the guilty conscience." Erick Fromm Escape from Freedom
"Social control is most effective at the individual level. The personal conscience is the key element in ensuring self-control, refraining from deviant behavior even when it can be easily perpetrated." "The family, the next most important unit affecting social control, is obviously instrumental in the initial formation of the conscience and in the continued reinforcement of the values that encourage law abiding behavior." Dr. Robert Trojanowicz The meaning of "Community" in Community Policing
"Unfortunately, because of the reduction of influence exerted by neighbors, the extended family and even the family, social control is now often more dependent on external control, than on internal self-control." Dr. Robert Trojanowicz The meaning of "Community" in Community Policing
in agreement with inductive reasoning
Redefine the conscience so it fits the role of a super-ego i.e. a seared conscience
"... the super-ego ‘unites in itself the influences of the present and of the past.'" Norman O. Brown Life Against Death
"It is a function of the ego to make peace with conscience, to create a larger synthesis within which conscience, emotional impulses, and self operate in relative harmony." "When this synthesis is not achieved, the superego has somewhat the role of a foreign body within the personality, and it exhibits those rigid, automatic, and unstable aspects discussed above." Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality
"The superego is conceived in psychoanalysis as functioning substantially in the same way as the conscience." "Superego development is conceived as the incorporation of the moral standards of society." "Therefore the levels of the Taxonomy should describe successive levels of goal setting appropriate to superego development." Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book I Cognitive Domain
"This voice which really isn't you but tells you the way the world works is a direct attack on creativity. We have to work to remove it." "When we learn to silence the inner voice that judges yourself and others, there is no limit to what we can accomplish, individually and as part of a team. Absence of judgment makes you more receptive to innovative ideas." Michael Ray Maslow on Management, Abraham Maslow, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1998. p. 223, 225
The consequence of using inductive reasoning is clearly explained by Gods Word.
For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Romans 5:19
According to the liberal mind, deductive reasoning must be redefined in favor of a socialist outcome (as just another opinion, as a theory instead of a priori or premise) or it is faulty rationalization. Deductive reasoning must be redefined so its use will always initiate and sustain inductive reasoning. Thereafter the inductive-deductive cycle must be used in determining all "healthy" human praxis. If a prior is not replaced with theory, deductive reasoning becomes the source of reification (laws external to mans changing needs and interests). "Reification is based on rationalization." Bronner Of Critical Theory In this case rationalization is used to define things in a rigid, established a priori way which limits natural human behavior and interferes with natural human relationship.
A Deductive Categorical Imperative:
"if ye be without chastisement ... then are ye bastards." Hebrew 12:8
"If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live? Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby." Hebrew 12:7-11
For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God. Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Acts 20: 27-29
An Inductive "Categorical Imperative:"
"The correct thing to do with authoritarians is to take them realistically for the bastards they are and then behave toward them as if they were bastards." Abraham Maslow
For those who think dialectically, the proper use of deductive reasoning must be overcome. A facilitator must be trained on how to perform a tracheotomy on those who obstruct a consensus building meeting.
"Laws must not fetter human life; but yield to it; they must change as the needs and capacities of the people change." "The critique of religion ends with the categorical imperative to overthrow all conditions in which man is a debased, enslaved, neglected, contemptible being." "Criticism proceeds on to praxis." Karl Marx Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right ed. Joseph O'Malley
"Parents are ‘out of touch with the times,' and unable to understand, much less inculcate, the standards of a social order that has changed since they were young." James Coleman, The Adolescent Society: the Social Life of the Teenager and its Impact on Education. 1961
Karl Marx Feuerbach Thesis # 4
"Any non-family-based collectivity that intervenes between parent and child and attempts to regulate and modify the parent-child relationship will have a democratizing impact on that relationship regardless of its intent." Warren Bennis The Temporary Society, 1969
"Using social environmental forces to change the parent's behavior toward the child." T. W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality, 1950, p. 6
"We must bring theory closer to practice." Statement made by Rod Paige on national news. He was our secretary of education under president Bush Jr.
Deductive definition of Sin
The Cause of Alienation―Sin.
"Behold, the LORD'S hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will not hear." Isaiah 59:1, 2 (also see Isaiah 1:1-31)
How to Overcome Alienation―Repent.
"Sin estranges man from God and God from man."
Inductive definition of "Sin"
The Cause of Alienation―God.
"God's work is a source of corruptions in individuals." John Dewey Democracy and Education 1919
"It is not the will or desire of any one person which establish order but the moving spirit of the whole group. Control is social." John Dewey Experience and Education 1931
"Alienation is the experience of ‘estrangement' (Verfremdung) from others, . . ." "Alienation has a long history. Its most radical sense already appears in the biblical expulsion from Eden." "Alienation, according to Feuerbach, derives from the externalization (Entausserung) of human powers and possibilities upon a non-existent entity: God. . ." "God is thus the anthropological source of alienation . . ." "Alienation will continue so long as the subject engages in an externalization (Entausserung) of his or her subjectivity." Bronner Of Critical Theory and its Theorists
How to Overcoming Alienation―Self-Actualize.
"Sin is the estrangement of man from man." Paul Tillich
"Salvation is a byproduct of Self-Actualization Duty." Abraham Maslow Maslow on Management 1998
And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God. Luke 16:5
If we had only known!
When children from a patriarch-structured family participate in an inductive reasoning environment, used to determine morals and ethics, they will always come home with condescension toward their family structure (wicked). The process, brought by the child back into the home, will produce added stress in the family, forcing the parents to either "crack down" to restore order or acquiesce to bring "peace" back into the home. With enough outside support, from an inductive reasoning institution or person, along with an internal determination (stubbornness) by the child "to be their own person", the crisis-creating child will be able to force the parents to look outside the home for assistance. If they turn any direction, except to another deductive reasoning institution, for assistance, the patriarchal home will experience dissolution.
When social engineers talk about your child learning to love others, which on the face of it you would not identify as a problem, they are in reality teaching your child to hate! To hate you! The hate is not directed at you per se, it is directed at the way you think and the way you behave. Nevertheless it is hate! And it will manifest itself in a most grievous way. Not only will your children behave wickedly, they will behave stubbornly. While their body may be present before you, their heart is not, and a hollowness now exists―in you soul. But we had our children's best interest in mind when we sent them there. If we had only known! If we had only known! But we did know! No where in the Word of God does God tell us to experiment with our children (inductive reasoning). We are to train them up! Deductively, didactically, in a patriarchal home.
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PART III
Inductive Reasoning and Hilda Taba;
Attacking Patriarchal Education.
by Dean Gotcher
PART THREE OF THREE PARTS ON INDUCTIVE-DEDUCTIVE REASONING
These Diaprax articles are on the subject of inductive reasoning being used by educators and facilitators to mask their socialist, materialist agenda. The dialectic process as implemented in every institution in America today is being applied around the world for the purpose of "World Peace," even in the church. Its pervasiveness makes it difficult to find a place of refuge. As Jeremiah, after loosing home and nation, responded by Gods unction "For even thy brethren, and the house of thy father, even they have dealt treacherously with thee; yea, they have called a multitude after thee: believe them not, though they speak fair words unto thee. I have forsaken mine house, I have left mine heritage; I have given the dearly beloved of my soul into the hand of her enemies. Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest; it crieth out against me: therefore have I hated it. Mine heritage is unto me as a speckled bird, the birds round about are against her; come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, come to devour. Many pastors have destroyed my vineyard, they have trodden my portion under foot, they have made my pleasant portion a desolate wilderness. They have made it desolate, and being desolate it mourneth unto me; the whole land is made desolate, because no man layeth it to heart. The spoilers are come upon all high places through the wilderness: for the sword of the LORD shall devour from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land: no flesh shall have peace. They have sown wheat, but shall reap thorns: they have put themselves to pain, but shall not profit: and they shall be ashamed of your revenues because of the fierce anger of the LORD. Thus saith the LORD against all mine evil neighbours, that touch the inheritance which I have caused my people Israel to inherit; Behold, I will pluck them out of their land, and pluck out the house of Judah from among them. And it shall come to pass, after that I have plucked them out I will return, and have compassion on them, and will bring them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land. And it shall come to pass, if they will diligently learn the ways of my people, to swear by my name, The LORD liveth; as they taught my people to swear by Baal; then shall they be built in the midst of my people. But if they will not obey, I will utterly pluck up and destroy that nation, saith the LORD." Jeremiah 12:7-17
Our portion is in the Lord. Apart from him all is under Lucifer's control. Diaprax is the method, the pattern, the system which Satan uses to draw man from God, so he can posses God's portion. He and the world will party, they will do the "Marxist waltz" for a season. Do not despair, for God will judge. For our Hope resides in Him and not in man and his foolishness. Man will mock, a nasty mocking, but as Jesus endured the shame of the Cross, we must abide in him, trust in him, and having done all, endure to the end. For it is only in Him that we shall escape the world's judgment.
The pleasures of this life, the "ought to be's" of our heart, are not worth having compared to the portion that lies ahead in Christ. To gain the world, to praxis the dialectical paradigm, and lose your soul is the way of a fool. Mock and ridicule, speak your double speak, enjoy your deception, but as gravity judges the one who ignores it's law, so God judges those who ignore his law and his grace and his mercy. Know this, Hell is permanent, and so is Heaven. In this life only is there a place in between. That land is simply a time to choose, but there is no lasting land of diaprax, there is no lasting land of "ought to be", there is no lasting land of consensus, there is no lasting land of "lets agree to disagree." Choose today who you will serve. As for me and my house we will serve the Lord.
Table of Contents: Part III
The Strategy of Inductive Reasoning ― a "bottoms up" tactic.
Hilda Taba: Ambassador of Inductive Reasoning
The Experimental Classroom
Religion and Prejudice Correlated - both the result of deductive thinking
Pulling off a revolution―a paradigm shift―from deductive to inductive reasoning
Finding that which is common―Commonkazies
Bourgeoisie-Proletariat and Class Consciousness or Parent-Child and Patricide
The good son asks "What does this mean?" while the wicked son asks "What does this mean to you?"
Role Playing Techniques
HILDA TABA AND HER HOME COUNTRY
Teacher education in a postmodern society: an Estonian perspective
The Strategy of Inductive Reasoning ― a "bottoms up" tactic.
1. First make a list of items found in the visual environment―discernible items―(begin with perception, material, earthy; "and Eve saw ...").
2. Find items from the list which relate with one another and group them appropriately―(focusing on what is similar-positive-sensually agree-common, "good for food, pleasing to eyes, etc.", physical needs, aesthetic needs, etc.- example: Maslow's hierarchy of needs―this is to circumvent dualism, antithesis, "right-wrong," spirit-material. "By 'dialectical' I mean an activity of consciousness struggling to circumvent the limitations imposed by the formal-logical law of contradiction." Norman O. Brown Life Against Death―The "formal-logical law of contradiction" is the parent.)
3. Classify each group with a short characterization. (uncertain hypothesis-labeling, grouping―keep everything fluid, in opinion format―developed synthesis.)
4. Conclude by fleshing out a few general assumptions, suppositions, conclusions or theories. (Synthesis redefined as a soft thesis with a tension for future re-evaluation so the process can continue on, and on, and on, etc.―Values clarification, Situation ethics, etc.)
Note: Bloom's Taxonomies follow the same line of thought. Knowing, Comprehending, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation. Benjamin S. Bloom, Ralph Tyler, and Hilda Taba knew and worked with each other.
INDUCTIVE REASONING―EXTRAPOLATION & APPROPRIATE INFORMATION
One of the most devious maneuvers of inductive reasoning is the facilitator's ability to manipulate the environment to flesh out the "appropriate information." By allowing the introduction of all available information (diversity-deviancy) on a particular subject, and then selecting only the information which would promote group cohesion and advance the group project, the facilitator is able to orchestrate the group into his pre-determined outcome, the praxis of inductive reasoning. Rather than any one position being established via deductive reasoning, the outcome is a group approved position (consensus), established by extrapolating from the diverse participants only that information which was pertinent to the group's desired outcome. Therefore all who participated in and agreed on the outcome participated in and approved of the use of inductive reasoning as the means to the end, peace and harmony. And you thought that meeting was all about fixing a bridge, zoning some property, etc. That's what Facilitators-Change Agents wanted you to think it was all about, while they were "fixing" you. Fixing means "setting you up to put you in your place." (Excerpt from Inductive-Deductive Reasoning Part II)
To reculture society, changing it from a patriarchal to a Heresiarchal paradigm, it is necessary to either force the standards of the new culture upon the older for an extended period of time, remove those of the old culture, or re-educate the old culture into the new. The first two methods would leave in place a deductive method since people were forced to participate. The latter method would be inductive in approach since it involved a willingness on the part of the participants. To a socialist the old culture would be capitalistic in nature, capitulation to higher authority being the form of thought and behavior. The patriarchal paradigm or traditional society is seen as maintaining status quo, enforcing standards and behaviors of the past upon the future generation.
The structure of relations are the key to determining which culture is in control. When a culture is willing to see itself from the eyes of the new culture, it is willing to "abdicate its power freely." This is the intent for those using inductive reasoning in education on personal-social issues. The classroom becomes the relation building environment of the new culture, detaching it from the use of deductive reasoning which helped sustain the old culture.
The way relations are developed is the basic difference between the use of inductive and deductive reasoning, between focusing on what is different (didactic, "right-wrong," "win-loose," truth over feelings, "Is/ Is Not," either/or, cause/effect etc.) and what is similar (dialectic, "there is no right or wrong answer," "positive―negating the negative," "what you can live with," "win-win," "Ought-Seems to," truth through feelings, etc.). When the focus is on student-teacher partnership the classroom changes rapidly from a capitulating environment (instructor-instructed) to a socializing environment (student-teacher partnership). Students exiting such an environment of liberation will become the "grave-diggers" of the old paradigm. All socialist material supports this revolutionary outcome.
"'Capital' … is, according to Marx, 'not a thing but a social relation between persons mediated through things.' 'These relations,' Marx states, 'are not those between one individual and another, but between worker and capitalist, tenant and landlord, etc. Eliminate these relations and you abolish the whole of society; …… a scientifically acceptable solution does exist … For to accept that solution, even in theory, would be tantamount to observing society from a class standpoint other than that of the bourgeoisie. And no class can do that-unless it is willing to abdicate its power freely. ' '... the ideological history of the bourgeoisie was nothing but a desperate resistance to every insight into the true nature of the society it had created and thus to a real understanding of its class situation.… the Communist Manifesto makes the point that the bourgeoisie produces its own grave-diggers.'" György Lukács, History & Class Consciousness Class Consciousness March, 1920
"I can be whatever I deeply am." "I don't know exactly who I am, but I can feel my reactions at any given moment, and they seem to work out pretty well as a basis for my behavior from moment to moment." "The innermost core of man's nature, the base of his ‘animal nature,' is positive in nature." Carl Rogers On becoming a person
Hilda Taba: Ambassador of Inductive Reasoning
Hilda Taba graduated from Tartu University in Communist Estonia, which implemented John Dewey's progressive education method embraced by the early Communist movement (while socialist, i.e. transformational Marxists, like to see themselves as not being communists, i.e. traditional Marxists, they still use the same system of self-justification, i.e. the dialectical process, the outcome of both being the same, i.e. totalitarianism, one simply being slower and more 'user friendly' than the other, so while Communism had not overtaken Estonia at Taba`s graduation, the institution, being socialist was already subject to communist ideology, some like to separate the two so they can more easily device the ignorant, i.e. themselves). She believed "learning should be modeled after dynamic models derived from contemporary physics." (as Bloom believed and stated in his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book 1 Cognitive Domain. See Bloom and Marx. She turned true science into "so called science," applying methods which would be acceptable in the physical world on mankind. Kurt Lewin followed the same procedure by implementing electrical engineering terminology and methods into his "group dynamics," "force field analysis," "positive and negative forces fields," "unfreezing, changing, refreezing," etc. which he incorporated from MIT. (see Force Field Analysis Applied To A School)
Taba has become an icon for social engineers around the world today. Her work is used in all nations. Social engineers, interested in encourage higher order thinking by incorporating the inductive method (the scientific method) into instruction, find her work essential to the fulfillment of the task. Their agenda is to produce a radical change from the traditional system of education of indoctrination, common to cultures around the world interested in sustaining their heritage, to a globalist socialist paradigm. By shifting from the use of history textbooks to the use of social studies, indoctrination (deductive reasoning) was replace with social engineering manipulation (inductive reasoning). The agenda is to instruct the next generation in how to think inductively, not deductively in matters of individual and social relations. By doing so the standards of the past are replaced with the "speculative and creative" imaginations and dreams of the future. With this new method of thinking Godly principle are replace with democratic principles. The Patriarch paradigm is replaced with a paradigm of patricide and incest where thinking is no longer to weighting behavior by right and wrong set by higher authority but rather a right and wrong determined by a collective sensuous rational discourse (glasnost, perestroika, democratization).
"No matter what views people hold of the chief function of education, they at least agree that people need to learn to think. In a society in which changes come fast, individuals cannot depend on routinized behavior or tradition in making decisions... In such a society there is a natural concern that individuals be capable of intelligent and independent thought." Taba, Hilda. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice, New York; Harcourt, Brace, 1962
[True science requires thinking to the facts while 'behavior science' requires thinking counter to established facts, i.e. God and His Word, since it bases man upon the material world (what is), something which even Marx saw as not possible (the 'change' process was not possible via. true science), since the laws of nature are established and once discovered, man would become subject to an established condition (which is unchanging). The purpose for the use of the dialectical process of 'change' is to counter the laws of nature (and thus the God of nature) as being the foundation of human thought and action. Therefore the process of questioning 'what is established,' the process of questioning, itself (as done in Genesis 3:1-6) must become the only possible method accessible to man to free himself from the laws of nature, i.e. from God and the God of nature. Therefore thinking is to the process of 'change' itself and no longer to any established result produced from the use of the "scientific method" of the process.
Without the repeated use of the process, in all 'thinking' environments, the bankruptcy (failure and heresy) of the 'change' process would become apparent. The outcome of any meeting, which resulted from the use of the 'change' process, can not be used "as is" in the next meeting since it would hinder or prevent the use of the 'change' process. Every meeting must use the process of 'change' (to derive at an outcome) so as to prevent the outcome from the previous meeting from inhibiting the 'change' process.' The perpetuating of the 'change' process i.e. continuous improvement, sustainable development, etc. thus becomes the only 'purpose' for life.
While traditional Marxists follow after an outcome of the 'change' process (communism, i.e. equated to fascism) where thinking is to the outcome of the change process, transformational Marxists seek to perpetuate the change process itself (socialism, communitarianism, democratization, conscietization, etc.), where thinking is to the process of 'change' itself. In education, thinking is thus changed from thinking of (and thus memorizing) facts to thinking via. the use of the process of 'change.' Moving the next generation from 'lower order' thinking skills, the learning of facts and truths as given, to 'higher order' thinking skills, questioning all things, making them subject man's carnal nature and the sensual world.]
The Eight-Year Study, directed by Ralph Tyler, which Taba was involved in, was an effort to evaluate how progressive education could be more effective at the college level. It was noted that youth coming out of the progressive education school systems were entering and exiting high school changed but were entering and exiting college unchanged in regard to their traditional way of thinking. Jacobs study in the following years was the justification for Bloom's Taxonomies―the incorporating of a new form of progressivism (transformational Marxism) in the grade schools and high schools as well as the College and University classrooms. The use of inductive reasoning to bring the class to the upper end of the Taxonomy, the synthesis, evaluation level of thought, was the missing link. The inductive reasoning environment, with its engaging problem solving environment, uniting feelings (affective domain―social) and thinking (cognitive domain―individual), was recognized as the connecting praxis. The key was to create an environment where the students feelings would be rationally attached to the group, to the social experience. The focus was not from the lower end of the taxonomy scale, but the upper, not from knowledge to evaluation, but rather from evaluation to knowledge. In this way perception ruled the outcome instead of set standards of the past.
"Perhaps one of the most dramatic events highlighting the need for progress in the affective domain was the publication of Jacob's Changing Values in College (1957)." David Krathwohl, Benjamin Bloom; Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book II Affective Domain 1964
Whenever re-education involves the relinquishment of standards which are contrary to the standards of society at large the feeling of
group belongingness seems to be greatly heightened if the members feel free to express openly the very sentiments which are to be dislodged through re-education." Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change
"What we need to learn, it seems, are ways of gaining acceptance for a humanistic person-centered venture in a culture more devoted to rule by authority." Freedom To Learn FOR THE 80'S Carl Rogers, Charles E Merrill Co, Columbus OH. 1969
Adolescent Character and Personality
Robert Havighurst and Hilda Taba
This investigation is supported by the Lilly Endowment Incorporated. Ralph W. Tyler, Chairman The Committee on Human Development Chicago, Illinois January, 1949
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STUDENT BELIEFS AND LIFE PROBLEMS
Although these instruments were derived from techniques developed from the Eight-Year Study, their application to the field of personal beliefs, where "right" and "wrong" is strongly emphasized, represented a new venture. [Eight-Year Study] Eugene R. Smith and R. W. Tyler Appraising and Recording Student Progress, Chap. 3. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1942
This volume and Elmtown's Youth may be viewed as companion pieces since they have been based upon research in the same community, and in part on the same boys and girls. They differ in that each volume is focused upon a different facet of adolescent life. R. J. H. H. T. August B. Hollingshead, Elmtown's Youth: The Impact of Social Classes on Adolescents, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949
The school must itself be changed if it is to serve more effectively in the formation of good character. It must make room for the deviant student.* This person will be able to discriminate among values and to deviate from the moral status quo of the community, when such deviation is necessary to the realization of higher moral principles. How such persons can be discovered, and, above all, how such persons can be produced in greater number is the major problem for research in character formation. (emphasis added)
*... deviants because of their interpersonal behavior in the group sessions and not because of a deviant life style or past history. There is no type of past behavior too deviant for a group to accept once therapeutic group norms are established. Irvin Yalom Theory and Practice and Group Psychotherapy.
Education for Responsible Citizenship by Frank Brown
CHAPTER 2 EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
The content of this section has been largely drawn from Ralph W. Tyler, "Achievement Testing and Curriculum Construction," Trends in Student Personnel Work, E. G. Williamson, Ed., Minneapolis, Minn.: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1949, pp. 391-407
Citizenship is not merely a matter of inculcating moral and social precepts. The school furnishes opportunities to discover and use facts, principles, and ideas that are more accurate, balanced, and comprehensive than what is provided in most homes, work places, or other social institutions. The school is usually an environment that represents the American social ideals more closely than the larger society.
In most schools, each student is respected as a human being without discrimination, the transactions in the classroom are guided by an attempt to be fair and dispense justice, and the class moral is a reflection of the fact that the members care about the welfare of others.
In the recent period of rapid social change, the educational roles of the home, the community, the religious institutions, and employment have been greatly changed. Generally, they have been reduced. [There is a] need to keep closely in touch with the out-of-school experiences of the students in order to focus on the real ethical situations these children confront in learning to be good citizens.
The school can encourage students* to reflect on the problem situations they encounter, to analyze these situations, to try to predict the consequences of several possible courses of action, to compare their thinking with what they actually did, and to note the consequences they experienced. [*Same system of Bloom's Taxonomies dedicated to Ralph Tyler, where the person is taxonomized according to learning paradigms, one starts with knowledge of rules and standards (patriarchal paradigm) and moves up to analysis through comprehension and application and the other starts in reverse order with evaluation (perception-heresiarchal paradigm) and moves backward to knowledge (information relevant to the situation) through synthesis, analysis, application, and comprehension.]
The school can also continue its long-accepted role of providing within its environment a democratic society closer to the ideal than the adult community has yet been able to achieve. It can provide a setting in which young people can experience concretely the meaning of our democratic ideals. It is crucially important for children to see firsthand a society that encourages and supports democratic values.
Educational philosophies in a democratic society are likely to emphasize strongly democratic values. These four values are:
The importance of every human being.
Opportunity for wide participation in social groups in society.
Encouragement of variability of life styles.
Faith in intelligence rather than authority.
"Should the school develop young people to fit into the present society as it is or does the school have a revolutionary mission to develop young people who will seek to improve the society?" Perhaps a modern school would include in its statement [that] it believes that the high ideals of a good society are not adequately realized in our present society and that through the education of young people it hopes to improve society.
The Experimental Classroom
"Experience is, for me, the highest authority."
"Neither the Bible nor the prophets, neither the revelations of God can take precedence over my own direct experience."
Carl Rogers On becoming a person
"Physical experiences cause a change in our theories and concepts about the physical world." "The objective sought will not be reached so long as the new set of values is not experienced by the individual as something freely chosen." Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues, 1:3:56-65 August, 1945
"There is evidence in our data that once a change in behavior has occurred, a change in beliefs is likely to follow." Leon Festinger
"The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to the group." Kurt Lewin in Human Relations in Curriculum Change.
"to create an experiential chasm between parents and children" Warren Bennis
Hilda Taba believed the educational curriculum "needed to be experiential, where children learn to solve problems and resolve conflicts together." She utilized a Marxist method for socializing individuals into a "group think" outcome. And she believed that "student understanding [social attitudes] had to be evaluated using appropriate tools and processes." This was necessary if incorrect social attitude was to be properly identified and dealt with. Thus teachers had to themselves experience for themselves dynamic education. "Concerning the changing of circumstances by men, the educator must himself be educated. The changing of circumstances and of self can only be grasped and rationally understood as revolutionary practice." Karl Marx Thesis on Feuerbach # 3. As one of John Dewey's doctoral candidates put it, "Educators and others in the role of change agents must have a method of social engineering relevant to initiating and controlling the change process." Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change 1951.
"In order to effect rapid change, . . . [one] must mount a vigorous attack on the family lest the traditions of present generations be preserved. It is necessary, in other words, artificially to create an experiential chasm between parents and children—to insulate the children in order that they can more easily be indoctrinated with new ideas." Warren Bennis The Temporary Society
"Believing in the unity of theory and practice, Dewey not only wrote on the subject, but for a time participated in the ‘laboratory school' for children connected with the University of Chicago."
John Dewey Education and Democracy
Taba earned her graduate degree at Bryn Mawr College and her doctorate "The Dynamics of Education" at Columbia University. Ralph Tyler and Benjamin Bloom implemented her communist/socialist inductive model into American classrooms. In 1938 Taba became the director of the Curriculum Laboratory at the University of Chicago and during the 40's she lead the way in intergroup education which eventually became multicultural education in the 70's and 80's.
It's all an experiment
"No hypothesis in this body of writings has been fully tested. Nor will it be tested fully until it has been used widely in thoughtful experimentation with actual social changes. The school offers an important potential laboratory for the development of a truly experimental social science. Experimentally minded school workers can develop and improve the hypotheses suggested in these readings as they put them to the test in planning and evaluating changes in the school program." Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change.
"Certainly the Taxonomy was unproven at the time it was developed and may well be ‘unprovable.'" Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty Year Retrospect
The National Conference of Christians and Jews and the American Council on Education joined forces in 1934 on the propagation of socialist/democratic ideology, couched under the banner "responding to perceived threats to national unity,"―stemming from racism, discrimination, and anti-Semitism. Taba worked with their project in 1944 at a Harvard work shop, resulting in a yearbook for the National Council for Social Studies titled Democratic Human Relations. She headed the project from 1945, directing the Center for Intergroup Education at the University of Chicago until 1951. Interestingly the Marxist change agent book Human Relations for Curriculum Change, edited by Kenneth Benne, came out that same year, 1951, a National Training Laboratory project originally located at Bethel Maine (begun in 1947 by men like Kurt Lewin, who died that year, Kenneth Benne, Leland Bradford, Ronald Lippit), working with Tavistock from England, and the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program.
Religion and Prejudice Correlated - both the result of deductive thinking
In 1944, the same year Taba was working at Harvard, the American Jewish Committee [Social Studies Series] in May, 1944, invited a group of American scholars to a two-day conference on religious and racial prejudices. That project resulted in Theodor Adorno's Book The Authoritarian Personality, amongst other prominent socialist books. Benjamin Bloom refers to Adorno's book as the world view he had in mind when he developed his Taxonomies for teacher training. According to these men, if prejudice, right-wrong, attitude was to be replaced with democratically principled citizens, the "ideal family situation for the child" had to be eradicated,.
"The conception of the ideal family situation for the child: uncritical obedience to the father and elders, pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, inhibition of spontaneity and emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values." "The prototypic 'liberal' is . . . an individual who actively seeks progressive social change, who can be militantly critical (though not necessarily totally rejective) of the present status quo," "One of the primary functions of these [matter‑of‑fact] questions was to encourage the subject to talk freely. This was attempted by indicating, for example, that critical remarks about parents were perfectly in place, thus reducing defenses as well as feelings of guilt and anxiety." Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality
"Religion, especially the Protestant Christian tradition, has permeated our culture with the concept that man is basically sinful, and only by something approaching a miracle can his sinful nature be negated." "I have little sympathy with the rather prevalent concept that man is basically irrational, and that his impulses, if not controlled, will lead to destruction of others and self." "We know how to disintegrate a man's personality structure, dissolving his self-confidence, destroying the concept he has of himself, and making him dependent on another. … brainwashing." Carl Rogers On becoming a person
"We have said that (change agents) need a social engineering theory which provides conceptual tools for diagnosing the possibilities for change, for locating the forces which support it, and for devising change procedures for those which oppose it..." "In the last few years there has been accumulating a small but growing body of investigations and writings in the fields of "human engineering" and "group development." These investigations and writings... attempt to focus the resources of various social sciences, including psychology, upon the problems of inducing and controlling changes in social systems..." Ed. by Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change.
Thomas S Kuhn spent the year 1958-1959 at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavior Sciences, directed by Ralph Tyler, where he finalized his "paradigm shift" concept of "Pre- and Post-paradigm periods." "Kuhn admitted problems with the schemata of his socio-psychological theory yet continued to urge its application into the scientific fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology." "Kuhn states 'If a paradigm is ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied' (which eventuates in) an increasing shift in the distribution of professional allegiances (where upon ) the man who continues to resist after his whole profession has been converted is ipso facto ceased to be a scientist." Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
"The ‘third force' in psychology … which emphasized a holistic, humanistic concept of the person, provided impetus and form to the encounter group …" "Theroeticians—Freudian, Sullivanian, Horneyan, Rogerian —explored the application of their conceptual framework to group therapy theory and practice." "With the advent of the object relations and the interpersonal systems of conceptualizing psychopathology … have come rudimentary attempts to classify individuals according to interpersonal styles of relating." Irvin D. Yalom Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy
''And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God." Luke 16: 15
"The self-esteem—public esteem system is thus closely related to the concept of group cohesiveness. We have said that the degree of group's influence on self-esteem is a function of its cohesiveness." Irvin D. Yalom Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy
"Only by bringing out the child's own ideas in dialogical and dialectical settings can the child begin to reconstruct and progressively transcend concepts." Richard Paul Critical Thinking Handbook
"What is particularly important here is that recognition of one's own individuality is the basis for recognition of the individuality of everyone, and for the democratic concept of the dignity of man." Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality
"In the first phase various members of the group quickly attempt to establish their customary places in the leadership hierarchy." "Next comes a period of frustration and conflict brought about by the leader's steadfast rejection of the concept of peck order and the authoritarian atmosphere in which the concept of peck order is rooted." "The third phase sees the development of cohesiveness among the members of the group, accompanied by a certain amount of complacency and smugness." [an unstable stage] "In the fourth phase the members retain the group-centeredness and sensitivities which characterized the third phase, but they develop also a sense of purpose and urgency which makes the group potentially an effective social instrument." Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change
"All concepts that are irreducible to facts are meaningless." Bronner Of Critical Theory and it Theorists
Pulling off a revolution―a paradigm shift―from deductive to inductive reasoning
"What we call ‘good teaching' . . . challenging the students' fixed belief."
Bloom's Taxonomy, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book II: Affective Domain, p. 55
"And yet they would not hearken unto their judges, but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them: they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD; but they did not so." Judges 2:17
"If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land." 2 Chronicles 7:14
What all these people and their works have in common is the implementation of inductive reasoning in the classroom for the express purpose of pulling of a revolution, a paradigm shift from a traditional-didactic-deductive-patriarchal paradigm to a transformational-dialectical-inductive-heresiarch paradigm. The secret was how to do this without loosing control of the situation. Inductive reasoning would be seen by the traditional parents as simply a class in true science, while in reality it would be used as a tool for social indoctrination. The students as well as the teacher would have to be willing, by their own choice, to participate in this procedure before it could be effective.
"From this we may conclude that social perception and freedom of choice are interrelated. Following one's conscience is identical with following the perceived intrinsic requirements of the situation. Only if and when the new set of values is freely accepted, only if it corresponds to one's superego, do those changes in social perception occur which, as we have seen, are a prerequisite for a change in conduct and therefore for a lasting effect of re-education. We can now formulate the dilemma which re-education has to face in this way: how can free acceptance of a new system of values be brought about if the person who is to be educated is in the nature of things, likely to be hostile to the new values and loyal to the old?" Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change
1. Identify what is common. (Positive)
a. Brainstorm: there are no wrong answers.
b. Be open ended:
1) Everyone is encouraged to have input.
2) No put downs.
c. Be non directing:
1) The is no one right answer. No a priori
2) Don't insist on a specific outcome. The outcome must be one in which all can participate in.
2. Focus on what is common, avoid focusing on what is not common. (Negative).
a. Group discussion is on the common cause to solve the common problem. Since all in the group are together on one issue "group think" can be developed in the mind of all individuals in the group.
b. Once all are focusing on the common cause then the focus is away from resistors, non-conformists, onto group process.
3. Once common is identified, opposing positions can be pulled into willful participation because they can now identify their needs or concerns in the common cause.
4. It will now make it easier to process any institution with similar needs.
Example: Christian Schools and Public School
Find what the Public and the Private Schools have in common: Concerns, needs, interests, language, styles, etc.
Approach the Christian School with the "appropriate information."
By those in leadership focusing on the needs which are in alignment with their own they will push for the incorporation of the "Christian School" material, bathed with scripture.
Only the discerning will pick up what is missing―the "inappropriate information," which the public school can not accept into its own system.
Once the "new" program is incorporated into the private school the rest of the public school material will eventually flow into the "Christian School" curriculum.
Teachers, Administrators, Businesses, Parents, etc. of the Church will pressure everyone else into being "contemporary" for the sake of the schools reputation in the community and for a better chance for the youth to complete in the job market as a witness for the Lord.
For an understanding of how the public-private school partnership has been developed the best source I have read is James Coleman's book Public and Private High Schools. An example of how private school administrators are trained on how to do this, unknown to most private school parents, is Dr. David Hands Doctoral dissertation Teacher Certification: A Qualitative Study of Cultural Views From Public and Private School Policymakers.
To overcome "inner resistance... a procedure was followed by which a goal was chosen on which everyone could agree fully." ibid. The role of the teacher was changed from instructor to facilitator and fellow participant in the process of change, an act which directly affected the students in the class. The Emancipation Proclamation of the American Civil War did not free one slave in the North. It gave freedom to all slaves in the Southern States. In other words it made law in the area the North had no jurisdiction over. In the same way inductive reasoning sets the child free from parental restraints in the home, an area teachers had no jurisdiction over, but while the child was now free to challenge their parents authority, they were not free from having to participate in the process in the classroom environment. It was only when the parent realized the source of the crisis-child at home and "opted" their child out of the brainwashing class (washing from the brain a patriarch paradigm), that the parent could even hope to restore order in the American home. This was usually done with great contempt from the child and social pressure from the school and community. Inductive reasoning used on morals and ethics was used as a tool of war on the unsuspecting parents of America. It continues today not only in the public schools but the Christian schools as well, and is also increasingly being used in home schooling material. The concept of leadership in the child's mind from the parents "Because I said so." a priori, first cause (as God is first cause) toward the concept of leadership of common cause was the major change. Loyalty was switched from the traditional family structure to the "global" family structure.
(a) The change of a group atmosphere from autocracy ... to democracy through a democratic leader amounts to a re-education of the followers toward ‘democratic follower-ship.' Any group atmosphere can be conceived of as a pattern of role playing. Neither the autocratic nor the democratic leader can play his role without the followers being ready to play their role accordingly. Without the members of the group being able and ready to take over those responsibilities which are essential for followership in a democracy, the democratic leader will be helpless. Changing a group atmosphere from autocracy toward democracy through a democratic leadership, therefore, means that the autocratic followers must shift toward a genuine acceptance of the role of democratic followers.
(b) The experiments show that this shift in roles cannot be accomplished by a "hands off" policy. To apply the principle of "individualistic freedom" merely leads to chaos. Sometimes people must rather forcefully be made to see what democratic responsibility toward the group as a whole means. It is true that people cannot be trained for democracy by autocratic methods. But it is equally true that to be able to change a group atmosphere toward democracy the democratic leader has to be in power and has to use his power for active re-education. ibid
The more the group members become converted to democracy and learn to play the roles of democracy as followers or leaders, the more can the power of the democratic leader shift to other ends than converting the group members. ibid
Hitler himself has obviously followed very carefully such a procedure. The democratic reversal of this procedure, although different in many respects, will have to be as thorough and as solidly based on group organization. ibid.
Ervin Yalom Theory and Practice and Group Psychotherapy
"What better way to help the patient recapture the past than to allow him to reexperience and reenact ancient feelings toward parents in his current relationship to the therapist? The therapist is the living personification of all parental images. Group therapists refuse to fill the traditional authority role: they do not lead in the ordinary manner, they do not provide answers and solutions, they urge the group to explore and to employ its own resources. The group [must] feel free to confront the therapist, who must not only permit, but encourage, such confrontation. He [the patient] reenacts early family scripts in the group and, if therapy is successful, is able to experiment with new behavior, to break free from the locked family role he once occupied. … the patient changes the past by reconstituting it."
"A group which reaches an autonomous decision based on a thorough exploration of the pertinent problems will employ all of its resources in support of its decision: Members must develop a feeling of mutual trust and respect and must come to value the group as an important means of meeting their personal needs. Once a member realizes that others accept him and are trying to understand him, then he finds it less necessary to hold rigidly to his own beliefs; and he may be willing to explore previously denied aspects of himself. One of the most fascinating aspects of group therapy is that everyone is born again, born together in the group. He must help the patient solidify the change and he must encourage generalization of the change, from the group setting into the patient's larger life environment. How can one propose crisp, basic guidelines for a procedure which has such complexity, such range, such delicate timing, so many linguistic nuances. … herein lies the art of psychotherapy; it will come to the therapist as he gains experience; … As the comments become more complex and more inferential, the author of the comments becomes more removed from the other person; in short, more a therapist process-commentator. [The patient] bears the responsibility for the creation of his world, and therefore, the responsibility for the transmutation of this world. … the patient with a homosexual orientation often adds breadth and depth to the group."
The Temporary Society
"If one wishes to mold children in order to achieve some future goal,
one must begin to view them as superior."
"One must teach them not to respect their tradition-bound elders,
who are tied to the past and know only what is irrelevant."
"Once the parent can in any way imagine his own orientation to be
a possible liability to the child in the world approaching
the authoritarian family is moribund,
regardless of whatever countermeasures may be taken."
The use of inductive reasoning to change cultural paradigm is reflected in the usage of bourgeoisie-proletariat in place of teacher-student, parent-child, boss-worker, etc. By substitution the words parent for bourgeoisie, child (or adolescent) for proletariat, and contempt toward parental authority (seeing the parent as the oppressor) for class consciousness in the following quotation (by György Lukács) it is easy to see the effect inductive reasoning has upon the child in the classroom, when used with personal and social issues. It is a powerful tool in the changing of a culture, as well as an effective tool in the removal of obstacles. While the child may have resentment toward the patriarch, he does not have the assurance necessary to challenge authority without "the party," the group, the social mind of approval. The classroom experience provided not only the realization and the actualization of the rebellious mind it provided the collective approval and support of its expression (against the patriarchal parent) as the common cause―emancipation. Except after this experience, the group approval is not just extrinsic, it is also intrinsic.
"... the bourgeoisie [parent] fighting on its own ground will prove superior to the proletariat [child] ... it is self-evident that the bourgeoisie [parent] fighting on its own ground will be both more experienced and more expert… the superiority of the proletariat [child] must lie exclusively in its ability to see society from the centre as a coherent whole [the purpose of teaching children inductive reasoning in the classroom]. This means that it [the child] is able to act in such a way [revolution] as to change reality [reality in the new generation is not found in obedience to authority but instead in social equality]; in the class consciousness [contempt toward parental authority] of the proletariat [child] theory and practice coincide [inclination rationalized collectively] ... The proletariat [child] cannot liberate itself as a class [under parental authority] without simultaneously abolishing class society [eliminating parent-child, teacher-student, etc. hierarchy] as such. For that reason its consciousness [society inductively reasoned], the last class consciousness in the history of mankind, must both lay bare the nature of society [socialist] and achieve an increasingly inward fusion of theory and practice.
…the bourgeoisie [parent] automatically obtains the upper hand when its opponents [the children] abandon their own position [position of equality with the parent]....destroy this unity they cut the nerve that binds proletarian theory [child reasoning] to proletarian action [child "group think" action]. They reduce theory to the ‘scientific' treatment of the symptoms ...and as for practice they are themselves reduced to being buffeted about aimlessly and uncontrollably." György Lukács History & Class Consciousness Class Consciousness March, 1920 Bloom classified this condition as either embracing a philosophy of others or as being maladjusted. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book I Cognitive Domain p. 166 fn. [bracketed information added]
Inductive reasoning when used in the classroom, to resolve social issues, produces a totality―a gestalt, a god's (group's) eye view of society―in the mind of the child. It blocks from the mind of the child their parents paradigmatic view on those same personal-social issues―obedience to authority is replaced with the unction and artcraft of questioning authority. This condition destabilizes the child. He must be re-stabilized to the group if he is to be socialized properly.
"With the devaluation of the epistemic authority of the God's eye view, moral commands lose their religious as well as their metaphysical foundation. The fact that moral practice is no longer tied to the individual's expectation of salvation and an exemplary conduct of life through the person of a redemptive God and the divine plan for salvation has two unwelcome consequences. On the one hand, moral knowledge becomes detached from moral motivation, and on the other, the concept of morally right action becomes differentiated from the conception of a good or godly life. … uncoupling morality from questions of the good life leads to a motivational deficit. Because there is no profane substitute for the hope of personal salvation, we lose the strongest motive for obeying moral commands. With the loss of its foundation in the religious promise of salvation, the meaning of normative obligation also changes. The differentiation between strict duties and less binding values, between what is morally right and what is ethically worth striving for, already sharpens moral validity into a normativity to which impartial judgment alone is adequate. The shift in perspective from God to human beings has a further consequence. 'Validity' now signifies that moral norms could win the agreement of all concerned, on the condition that they jointly examine in practical discourse whether a corresponding practice is in the equal interest of all." Jürgen Habermas 1998 Communicative Ethics The inclusion of the Other. Studies in Political Theory.
The good son asks "What does it mean?" while the wicked son asks "What does it mean to you?"
[a priori vs. theory]
"Prior to therapy the person is prone to ask himself, 'What would my parents want me to do?'
During the process of therapy the individual come to ask himself, ‘What does it mean to me?'"
Carl Rogers On becoming a person
Inductive reasoning produces a mind of questioning, a critical theoretical mind. "Question authority, question everything." Transformational Marxists and Critical Theory (Marxist Theory) became the mainstay of higher education from the 60's on in our Universities and Colleges.
"The use of ‘critical theory' [instead of Marxist Theory] as a code word, which already becomes evident in Horkheimer's early writings, enabled a certain interpretation of Marxism to enter academic discourse. Horkheimer's purpose in critical theory was to militate against: all attempts to construct a fixed system, every attempt to identify the subject with the object." "Humanistic potential is what critical inquiry must clarify. Grounding itself within the tradition of emancipation, in theory and practice . . ." Stephen Eric Bronner Critical Theory and its Theorists
"Any theory and set of practices is dogmatic which is not based upon critical examination of its own underlying principles." John Dewey Experience and Education
"Through the sudden popularity of Herbert Marcuse in the America of the late 1960's, the Frankfurt School's Critical Theory (Kritische Theorie) [ Marxist Theory] has also had a significant influence on the New Left in this country." "Praxis and reason were the two poles of Critical Theory. " "‘A great truth wants to be criticized, not idolized,' Nietzsche." "Eros and Civilization went far beyond the earlier efforts of Critical Theory to merge Freud and Marx." Martin Jay The Dialectical Imagination
"Feuerbach does not understand human activity itself as objective activity, as human sense activity, as practical activity, subjectively. He therefore does not grasp the significance of ‘revolutionary,' ‘practical-critical' activity. " Karl Marx Thesis on Feuerbach # 1
To control change, the right environment must be developed and sustained by the social-psychologist. To determine what this environment was, social-psychologists worked backwards from the desired outcome to the original environment (syllogism).
By first defining the outcome desired, then identifying the answers which produce that outcome, then developing the questions which produce those answers, and then identifying the environment which produce those questions, social-psychologists were able to develop the "right" environment which would always produce the right questions, which would always produce the right answers for their desired right outcome. (Socratic critical thinking)
Therefore everyone participating in the facilitated meeting would be forced into the outcome predetermined by the social scientist (facilitator). With this method of analysis, social-psychologists like Kurt Lewin and Hilda Taba have been able to develop powerful tools with which to control individuals in a group setting.
Source: Diaprax Article Group Decision and Social Change
In the classroom experience the teacher must be trained in how to keep the child's own liberated interests from sidetracking the overall objective of the "totality." The role of the "teacher" is to use the fear of lose of peer approval to "herd" the class into an ever tighter circle of consciousness, to where they are coherently, collectively, experiencing the orchestrating of social harmony. The collective totality will then guide the child in right behavior, wherever he goes. In the traditional home he will first be seen as "more independent than we were at his age" but as time progresses he will become a crisis-child in the traditional home. Revolution is afoot and re-education is its mentor.
"... consciousness must develop a dialectical contradiction between its immediate interests and its long-term objectives, …Only when the immediate interests are integrated into a total view and related to the final goal of the process do they become revolutionary," "Marx sees … consciousness as ‘practical critical activity' with the task of ‘changing the world'." Georg Lukács History & Class Consciousness Class Consciousness March, 1920
"The whole system of Marxism stands and falls with the principle that revolution is the product of a point of view in which the category of totality [group think] is dominant." Georg Lukács, History and Class Consciousness The Marxism of Rosa Luxemburg 1923
The classroom experience itself, using inductive reasoning to help all students and the teacher to simultaneously solve individual and social issues, changes the students' and teacher's perception of themselves and their place in society―life-long learning. It generates a conception that the solution to life's problem and the resolution of human needs are found within the environment, and can only be found within the environment, that any one who turns to a higher authority for answers generates an act which becomes an obstacle to personal and social resolution. The obstacle in this process is not only the child in face of opposition―the parent, but the opposition―voice of the parent―within the child.
"The proletariat only perfects itself by annihilating and transcending itself, by creating the classless society [when all the patriarchal parents/God have been removed] through the successful conclusion of its own class struggle. The struggle for this society, in which the dictatorship of the proletariat is merely a phase, is not just a battle waged against an external enemy, the bourgeoisie. It is equally the struggle of the proletariat against itself, against the devastating and degrading effects of the capitalist system upon its class consciousness. The proletariat will only have won the real victory when it has overcome these effects within itself [no longer have a fear of parents/God]." Georg Lukács History & Class Consciousness Class Consciousness March, 1920
The teacher as therapist must be trained in role play techniques. Although technical to the first timer, they are quickly learned in the group setting. With inductive reasoning as the platform, role-playing becomes the relationship building praxis.
Role Playing Techniques
"Religion and science can be kept apart... in 'role playing.'"
"Parents have no right upon their offspring except a psychological right."
J. L. Moreno
"...we have described roleplaying as diagnostic method but it can also be used as 'role therapy' to improve the relations between the members of a group." "... the origins of my work go back to a primitive religion and my objectives were the setting up and promoting of a new cultural order." "Parents have no right upon their offspring except a psychological right. Literally the children belong to universality." "I could well imagine a world of a reversed order, opposite to ours, in which ethical suicide of people after 30 or 35 as a religious technique or countering overpopulation is just as natural as birth control has become in our culture. In that society the love of life would be carried to its extreme. 'Make space for the unborn, make space for the newborn, for everyone born, Every time a new baby is born make space for him by taking the life of an old man or an old woman." J. L. Moreno Who Shall Survive? The Father of Role Playing.
The following analysis assumes that the task of the discussion group is to select, define and solve common problems. The roles are identified in relation to functions of facilitation and coordination of group problem-solving activities. Each member may of course enact more than one role in any given unit of participation and a wide range of roles in successive participations. Any or all of these roles may be played at times by the group 'leader' as well as by various members." Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change
GROUP TASK ROLES
Initiator-contributor Suggests or proposes Information seeker Asks for clarification of information and facts Opinion seeker Asks for clarification values Information giver Offers "authoritative" facts Opinion Giver States belief or opinion Elaborator Spells out suggestions Coordinator Shows or clarifies relationships Orienter Defines position Evaluator-critic Subjects the group's accomplishments to some standard Procedural technician Expedites group movement RECORDER Writes down the "group memory"
GROUP BUILDING AND MAINTENANCE ROLES
Encourager Praises, agrees with and accepts Harmonizer Mediates differences Compromisers Offers compromise as an example Gate-keeper and expediter Keeps communication open-facilitator Standard setter or ego ideal Expresses standards for the group Follower Spells out suggestions OBSERVER Keeps records of group process-body language
The following roles are of disapproval, they are attributes of the patriarchal paradigm. From the child's eye view the authority figure would be seen as a aggressor when he chastens the child for performing their natural carnal inclinations, a blocker when the parent prevent the child from doing what is natural and a "right", recognition seeker when the parent insists the child be silent so the parent can be heard, a self-confessor when the parent seeks the child's understanding when the parent does not have time to "relate" with the child, etc. See Diaprax Article "A Cookbook For Humans" for a detailed breakdown of all these roles. The are the roles which the patriarch must abdicate if the dialectical paradigm is to gain control of the individual's soul and rule the world. These are the roles those who find themselves in an inductive reasoning environment will be pressured to drop if they hope to be participants in the new world order.
THE "INDIVIDUAL" ROLE
Aggressor Disapproves of others' views Blocker Negativistic and resistant, disagreeing and opposing Recognition-seeker Calls attention to himself Self-confessor Expresses personal, non-group "feelings," "ideology" Playboy Makes display Dominator Asserts authority Help-seeker Calls forth "sympathy" from others, expects the "luke-warm" to come to their assistance. Special interest-pleaser Speaks for others (small businessmen, grass roots, housewives, etc.)
You can see why students are learning less facts. "Less is more" we are told. Less teaching of facts (deductive reasoning) allows more time for socialist brainwashing (inductive reasoning). Private schools and home schooling material is not exempt from these programs.
In the following example of inductive reasoning used in a classroom setting, you can see the effect collective discourse has upon all participants. Any categorical imperative, a moral command which is unquestionable and universal, (deductive reasoning) when brought into discourse (inductive reasoning) results in the abdication of the persons "religious foundation." "Thus saith the Lord" plus discourse equals abdication of patriarchal paradigm. This was the pattern of thought which was the Un-American activity of the 50's. Most Americans did not understand the effect of inductive reasoning had upon social issues back then. Just as few understand today. That moment is long past. The ramifications were immense.
"… the moral point of view can only be realized under conditions of communication that ensure that everyone tests the acceptability of a norm, implemented in a general practice, also from the perspective of his own understanding of himself and of the world, in this way the categorical imperative receives a discourse-theoretical interpretation in which its place is taken by the discourse principle (D), according to which only those norms can claim validity that could meet with the agreement of all those concerned in their capacity as participants in a practical discourse. … the collapse of its religious foundation ... " Jürgen Habermas 1998 Communicative Ethics The inclusion of the Other. Studies in Political Theory.
or General Systems Theory
"Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself."
While the classroom exercise applying inductive reasoning may seem harmless, the process itself, especially when applied to personal and social issues, directly affects the persons perception of themselves and the world. The method, as developed by Hilda Taba, became a predetermined outcome strategy. By generalizing the outcome, moving it away from a restraining premise toward a broader theoretical outcome, she was able to modify the procedure to create "a marked improvement in the thinking skills of elementary school students as they stud[ied] social topics and appl[ied] the knowledge they [had] gained." (p. 64) Her emphasis was to help students develop and attain concepts (hypothesis) and then interpret, infer, and generalize them. emphasis added
"... the concept of the world as the totality of facts is connected with a correspondence notion of truth and a semantic conception of justification. The social world, as the totality of legitimately ordered interpersonal relations, is accessible only from the participant's perspective; in the pragmatic presuppositions of rational discourse or deliberation the normative content of the implicit assumptions of communicative action is generalized, abstracted, and freed from all limits — the practice of deliberation is extended to an inclusive community that does not in principle exclude any subject capable of speech and action who can make relevant contributions. This idea points to a way out of the modern dilemma, since the participants have lost their metaphysical guarantees and must so to speak derive their normative orientations from themselves alone. As we have seen, the participants can only draw on those features of a common practice they already currently share…. The bottom line is that the participants have all already entered into the cooperative enterprise of rational discourse. The practice of argumentation sets in motion a cooperative competition for the better argument, where the orientation to the goal of a communicatively reached agreement unites the participants from the outset." Jürgen Habermas 1998 Communicative Ethics The inclusion of the Other. Studies in Political Theory.
HILDA TABA AND HER HOME COUNTRY
"FORMERLY" COMMUNIST ESTONIA
As Karl Marx attacked deductive thinking with the sole purpose of eradicating Christianity. By attacking deductive thinking used by the secular deductive thinkers (young Hegelians) he was able to focus his attack upon the system used by Christian faith, deductive reasoning. This is the same approach currently being implemented in the former communist country of Estonia. Traditional Marxists, using the same system of reasoning used by the young Hegelians, utilize a set standard as to how citizens are to behave. If one speaks the correct language in public they can rise up the ranks, despite the fact they may not be in agreement to the formula. In other words they do not praxis the dialectic, they just use it for their own personal betterment at the expense of the collective. Therefore Transformational Marxists see Traditional Marxists as Fascist in structure of thought. Their loyalty is to themselves and a national, although labeled communist, cause. They follow the "party line" not to promote the cause, but rather to promote themselves. They in essence have not embraced the process internally but are simply using it for personal gain.
What happened in America in the 30's, the invasion of Transformational Marxist fleeing Fascist Germany, was the preparation for a world wide takeover of Marxism/Freudism (social-psychology) disguised as democracy. Understanding the difference between Traditional Marxism with its tendency toward deductive reasoning and Transformational Marxism with its dependence upon inductive reasoning is essential if you are going to be able to identity what has happened not only to America but to other nations around the world. It was noticed by some senators in California, in the late 50's, that Hilda Taba, J. L. Moreno, etc. had a communist agenda.
California Legislature 1959 Budget Session, Sixteenth Report, Senate Investigating Committee on Education, Curriculum Changes, Senator Nelson S. Dilworth, Chairman.
HILDA TABA AND DEBORAH ELKINS
"Another book in this category is With Focus on Human Relations by Hilda Taba and Deborah Elkins. In 1950, at the time of the publication of the book Hilda Taba was Director of the Center for Intergroup Education at the University of Chicago. She is presently at San Francisco State College, Deborah Elkins is of the Hartford Public Schools, Hartford, Connecticut. The book was published by the American Council on Education, as is one of a series in Intergroup Education in Co-operating Schools." (several pages follow of other persons and national recognized socialist originations involved in support of this program as well as many quotations from the book itself.)
"Throughout the book you have heard sociogram, sociodrama, sociometric, role-playing, etc. They are all techniques coined by J. L. Moreno, and developed throughout the United States at Teacher Training Institutions, workshops and colleges."
What was unfortunate, most Americans in positions of influence did not know the differences between Traditional and Transformational Marxism. If they had things would have been different.
The Diaprax Article, Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Part II: Inductive Reasoning and Karl Marx. Attacking the Patriarchal Family goes into detail on Karl Marx's method for "correcting" the error of the young Hegelians (traditional, deductive thinking Marxist). When the "American" progressive form of education is introduced or reintroduced to former Communist run countries the ignorant might assume that those citizens are being freed from Communism. The truth is they are simply taking of Traditional Communist chains and replacing them with Transformational Communist chains. I call it "user friendly Marxism, Communism with a smile." It is the worst form of the diabolical system of Diaprax. While the former will take your body, you still have a chance to keep your soul, the latter will leave your body and take your soul (the dead walking).
For the citizens of the "former" soviet controlled Estonia such an agenda is currently under way. They are being told that they have been liberated from the evils of Traditional Communist control and are now given the opportunity to "re-becoming capitalist," to "achieve national self-determination" They are being told they will be blessed as citizens by their ability to live within a postmodern world. "'Postmodernity ... describes a world where people have to make their way without fixed referents and traditional anchoring points. It is a world of rapid change, of bewildering instability...' (Usher, Edwards, 1996, 10) — Estonia is postmodern." They are told they are now released "from the Soviet regime" and are emerging as "a democratic order" through the "mechanisms of consensus."
This new educational system based on a postmodern model will, as they claim, rescue the citizens of Estonia from the traditional form of education the communist block forced upon them. "Due to authoritarian system and ideologically narrow prescriptions our society, people have not gone through, not experienced for example the era of psychoanalysis, missing is the experience of plurality, but there is the experience, that someone is out there who can decide and knows that is right, what is wrong, what is forbidden (religion, genetics, some books and films...). What follows is under-developed reflective capacity and weak capacity for long-term projective view." Thus, according to Ene - Silvia Sarv, there is to be an "(an ongoing process) a change of paradigms."
For those parents or teachers in Estonia who wish to impart antithesis, the difference between "right" and "wrong," who wish to develop the conscience in the next generation, this program promises to be a nightmare, just as it has been to the traditional ('asocial') American home. The citizens of Estonia are being lied to, they are being told that this is a new adventure, untried, while the truth is, this process has been applied in the States for years and has been and continues to be applied all around the world. "Period of transition is a complex and many-sided process just in progress. As it was mentioned earlier, all of its facets, especially those that took place in education, have not yet been thought through:" "students' socialisation is especially important in teacher's work - there are many children in school of parents from the currently quickly emerging 'asocial' layer. This will most likely create a pressing need for healing pedagogy, pedagogical therapy and support pedagogy skills in everyday school life."
Education according to Ene - Silvia Sarv, is moving toward a "widely synergetic revolution" as a result of a "breaking of hierarchies." "The Estonian Educational renewal - change of paradigm, change of narratives - new game and paralogue." Thus education will use "new approaches for analyse," "Western Style," "tackle teacher training according to Western models." Education will be a "spontaneous democratisation or self-democratisation" system. These descriptions are those of transformational Marxists currently in control of the American school systems.
Teacher training would be built on "new foundations of education, changing of the picture of man and educational goals, i.e. direction towards enabling paradigmatic changes." "Thus, in 1987 - 1990 the humanisation and democratisation were not only keywords and aims - these were the aspects to be practised, the method for renewal. So they worked as metaphors and shaped the intrinsic motivation towards 're-education' for many teachers."
When the Communist first took over Estonia they utilized John Dewey's form of Education, 1920-1940. That was the system Taba was trained in while she attended Tartu University in Estonia before she came to the States. Then Progressivism was replace by Stalin's with Hard Line Communist Indoctrination (Traditional Marxism correlated as Fascism by Transformational Marxists). As the citizens are being told they are now free of communist control the are being deceived. They are simply being sold the goods that Lenin pushed on them under his reign. For the citizens to be told that this new system of education will free them from the oppression of the past is a lie. They write of a "'new view of history'; rediscovery and acknowledge the foreign and Estonian Republic's (1920 - 1940) educational science and practice (e.g. Käis, Põld, Taba, etc.)."
For anyone knowledgeable of the Transformational Marxists Bloom's Taxonomies the following analysis of Estonia's future educational system will sound familiar
"The beginning of school renewal with its brainstorming, thoughts- sharing, and other forms of group work gave in-service education new qualitative possibilities. In essence, in many subject and other groups a unique form of additional self-education was implemented, when the teacher participated in reflecting upon previous practice, its analysis, evaluation based on different criteria and models, forecasting, comprehending and formulating present and future educational needs, raising/defining new educational goals and projecting ways and means of their implementation, as well as further experimenting and evaluating. Thus, simultaneously playing the parts of the planner and executor of essential educational activities, the teacher's activity became motivated, self-fulfillment became a creative learning process instead of the previous passive 'receptive state'. Participation in projects demanded from the teacher knowledge and abilities, that were yet to be acquired (both from the areas of theoretical pedagogy and psychology, subject, and about correctly planning, carrying out, analysing an experiment, evaluating a new textbook or work document, etc.)"
That is the essence of the participation effect - continuously achieving new quality, raising important (for society, group, participant, executor) goals, planning their implementation, results' evaluation and correction.
Through the manipulative process of inductive reasoning (dialectical paradigm) citizens of Estonia will end up with transformational Marxists at the head of every institution in their country. The Estonia Education 2015 scenario will guarantee it.
Estonia's Education 2015 scenarios have been compiled with a goal to promote a discussion in the society about the future of Estonia's education and to support the educational strategies what are/will be worked out by Ministry of Education - to ensure participation of different interest groups in this process. The main driving forces in these scenarios are two characteristics of the society - the innovative ability/innovativeness and inclusiveness. On this basis four future visions of Estonia's society and education have been created:
A: "Nation-centered Estonia" of "Estonia of Public Schools",
B: "Corporative Estonia" of "Estonia of Permanently Launched Education Reforms",
C: "Estonia of the Rich and the Poor" of "Estonia of Market Education and Elite Schools", and
D: "Interactive, sustainable Estonia" or "Learning Estonia"
Jürgen Habermas's theoretical work is at the heart of discourse, the heart of this communist program now being implemented in Estonia. His use by this system can be read below, near the end of the following document. It is placed here for an example of how inductive reasoning is being used in all nations around the world to remove deductive reasoning as a method for knowing right from wrong, as knowing how God wants us to behave, Obey.
To see the full manuscript of Teacher education in a postmodern society: an Estonian perspective: POLITICAL AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS: ANALYSIS IN NATIONAL CONTEXT by Ene - Silvia Sarv
"My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children." Hosea 4:6
"Wherefore now let the fear of the LORD be upon you; take heed and do it: for there is no iniquity with the LORD our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts." 2 Chronicles 19:7
© Institution for Authority Research Dean Gotcher 2006-2015