Human Relations and Curriculum Change,
"A Cookbook For Humans." 
A Marxist training manual.


Dean Gotcher

Proverbs 3:1-35

    My son, forget not my law; but let thine heart keep my commandments: For length of days, and long life, and peace, shall they add to thee. Let not mercy and truth forsake thee: bind them about thy neck; write them upon the table of thine heart: So shalt thou find favour and good understanding in the sight of God and man.
    Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil. It shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to thy bones.
    Honour the LORD with thy substance, and with the firstfruits of all thine increase: So shall thy barns be filled with plenty, and thy presses shall burst out with new wine.
My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD; neither be weary of his correction: For whom the LORD loveth he correcteth; even as a father the son in whom he delighteth.
    Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding. For the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold. She is more precious than rubies: and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her. Length of days is in her right hand; and in her left hand riches and honour. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her: and happy is every one that retaineth her.
    The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens. By his knowledge the depths are broken up, and the clouds drop down the dew. My son, let not them depart from thine eyes: keep sound wisdom and discretion:
So shall they be life unto thy soul, and grace to thy neck. Then shalt thou walk in thy way safely, and thy foot shall not stumble.
    When thou liest down, thou shalt not be afraid: yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sleep shall be sweet.
Be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the desolation of the wicked, when it cometh. For the LORD shall be thy confidence, and shall keep thy foot from being taken.
    Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it. Say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come again, and to morrow I will give; when thou hast it by thee. Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee.
    Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done thee no harm. Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.
For the froward is abomination to the LORD: but his secret is with the righteous. The curse of the LORD is in the house of the wicked: but he blesseth the habitation of the just. Surely he scorneth the scorners: but he giveth grace unto the lowly. The wise shall inherit glory: but shame shall be the promotion of fools.

Hebrews 12:1-29

    Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.
    For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds. Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin. And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.
    If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live? For they verily for a few days chastened us after their own pleasure; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby.
    Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees; And make straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed. Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord: Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled; Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright. For ye know how that afterward, when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected: for he found no place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears.
    For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more: (For they could not endure that which was commanded, And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or thrust through with a dart: And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:) But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
    See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven: Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven. And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear: For our God is a consuming fire.

Human Relations for Curriculum Change  

An overview of Human Relations in Curriculum Change.
Some quick flow charts used by "Change Agents."
Excerpts from: Human Relations in Curriculum Change

Human Relations in Curriculum Change (pdf format)


Human Relations for Curriculum Change  

Edited by Kenneth Benne

"A Cookbook For Humans"


"Once the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the heavenly family
, the former must be destroyed in theory and practice."

Thesis #4 on Feuerbach. Karl Marx

    When the "Institute of Social Research" came to the United states in the early 30 with their dream of global peace they brought with them a form of Marxism most Americans were unaware of. Even today few realize the effect this form of Marxism has on our daily lives. This group of men with their synthesis of Marx and Freud were not the only dialectic and praxis thinking social engineers to come from Europe.

    Kurt Lewin, who, along with Wilhelm Reich, edited the Frankfurt School's journal while in Berlin, the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung came to the States in 1933. With his force field analysis, group dynamic, "unfreezing, moving, refreezing" methodology he was instrumental in developing group meetings as a laboratory for change. Teaching in Iowa, Massachusetts, and Michigan, he eventually helped set up the first National Training Laboratory (a Marxist training camp) in Bethel Maine in 1947. During his period of research and development in America, he was able to develop a method of application of Marxism which is used in literally every facet of our society. J. L. Moreno, the father of role-playing, was likewise instrumental in bringing Marxism into every policy setting institution today.

    What all these men had in common was the merging of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. How they differed from traditional Marxists wasn't only in their use of Freud, but in their method of application known as praxis. The facilitated meeting with its agenda to move a diverse group of people into a consensus over social (material) issues was the key procedure to bring about change in each individual in the group decision environment (soviet). By this method they were able to manipulate people into shifting their paradigm from a right/wrong (antithesis,) didactic way of thinking to a tolerance based (lets agree to disagree,) dialectic way of thinking known as "group think."

    By this shift of thought, individual sovereignty ceases. Human Relations in Curriculum Change is regarded as THE manual for social change. Edited by Kenneth Benne, with his doctoral dissertation earned under John Dewey, this is the book of books on the procedure of Marxist indoctrination for global change. Its ultimate goal is to undermine and destroy the traditional family-private business patriarch way of thinking; to attain a world without God. They call this process the scientific method. These men are indeed scientists, mad scientist, for a fool has said in his heart there is no God.  

Dean Gotcher


(the following is from Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

IN RECENT YEARS more and more attention has been focused on ways and means of effecting changes in school programs. In the Secondary School Curriculum Program in the State of Illinois, for example, a great deal of effort has been directed toward utilizing the best that is known regarding procedures for individual and group development. The present volume exemplifies this effort, having been originally issued as a bulletin published for use in Illinois, under the sponsorship of the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in cooperation with institutions of higher learning, industry, agriculture, labor, and twenty-nine other lay and professional groups and organizations. 

HUMAN RELATIONS IN CURRICULUM CHANGE has proved its value for individuals and groups interested in the improvement of education. It has been received with enthusiasm and is being used extensively by the faculties of many schools, by parent and other lay groups, and by undergraduate and graduate students in institutions of higher learning. The volume presents a clear-cut theory basic to effective group procedure together with many practical suggestions regarding ways and means of implementing this theory. 

Too much cannot be said regarding the help received from this publication by teachers, administrators, pupils, parents, and citizens who are not parents of children in school who have been working on projects sponsored by the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program. Practice of the good group procedures suggested in this book has led to increasingly effective work in furnishing the best possible educational opportunities for the youth in schools. Certainly this volume has made a very significant contribution to progress in Illinois schools and communities. It is hoped that all educators, both in service and in training, will find it similarly useful and significant.


Superintendent of Public Instruction State of Illinois


TEACHERS, ADMINISTRATORS AND LAYMEN who have sought seriously to produce changes in the program of the school recognize the central importance and difficulty of managing the "human factors" inescapably involved in such changes. For, whatever else it may include, a change in the curriculum is a change in the people concerned-in teachers, in students, in parents and other laymen,. in administrators. The people concerned must come to understand and accept the different pattern of schooling. This means change in their knowledge pertinent to the school and its programs and purposes. Typically, people involved who were loyal to the older pattern must be helped to transfer their allegiance to the new. This means change in their values with respect to education. Moreover, the people concerned must do some things differently from the way in which they did them before the change. This means changes in their skills. And, most difficult to predict and control, are changes in the relationships among personnel which changes in the program typically require. A changed way of working for the teacher in the classroom, for example, means changed expectations on the part of the teacher with respect to the students and their behavior as well as changed expectations on the part of the students with respect to the teacher and his behavior. If the change is a sizable one, new reciprocal relations between teachers and parents, students and parents, teachers and supervisors will also have to be worked out. This means changes in the relations of people. 

As those who seek to change the curriculum recognize that this involves interrelated changes in the knowledge, values, skills and relations of the people concerned, many baffling questions are bound to arise. Some of these questions have to do with the nature of change in people and in social systems such as the school. What underlies resistance to change on the part of people, even when the change seems well supported by facts and evaluated experience? Why do changes in the school, even though enthusiastically launched in the beginning, often slip back into the older patterns? Who are likely to be the leaders in any particular change? And what actually is "leadership"? 

Other questions center on the technology of bringing about change, questions of how to accomplish it. It is widely recognized that changes in the school program cannot be brought about without the organization and use of groups--committees and meetings of various kinds and sizes--for discussion, study, planning and decision about changes which are possible and desirable. Who should be on a committee called to plan a given change? How big should a committee be? How can committees be helped to function more productively than they often do? How can faculty meetings or meetings of students, faculty and parents generate more light and less heat? 

Frequently, educational leadership is worried about the ethics of deliberately setting out to change people, their ideas, their values, their skills and their relationships. Under what conditions does leadership in change function democratically? What right has a teacher to try to change students and parents? How can groups and individuals be protected from undemocratic manipulation? 

Still other questions focus on the discipline which leaders in change need in order to stimulate and coordinate changes, ethically, cooperatively and efficiently. These questions usually have to do with the methodology to be used in reaching decisions, in making policies and in reconstructing points of view. How can valid decisions and policies be best reached by a group? And what is validity with respect to a decision or policy? How can people think together validly when they differ markedly in their points of view? 

Questions about the nature of change, the technology of change, the ethics of change and the methodology of change are being asked widely by teachers, administrators and lay leaders today. What materials are available to help them answer these questions? 

In the last few years there has been accumulating a small but growing body of investigations and writings in the fields of "human engineering" and "group development." These investigations and writings, from which the selections in this book have been drawn, have at least four distinctive characteristics. (1) They attempt to focus the resources of various social sciences, including psychology, upon the problems of inducing and controlling changes in social systems, including the face-to-face group. The principles and concepts involved thus represent a fusion of resources from several social sciences. (2) They involve the collaboration of social scientists and social practitioners, including educators, in their formulation and testing. No hypothesis in this body of writings has been fully tested. Nor will it be tested fully until it has been used widely in thoughtful experimentation with actual social changes. The school offers an important potential laboratory for the development of a truly experimental social science. Experimentally minded school workers can develop and improve the hypotheses suggested in these readings as they put them to the test in planning and evaluating changes in the school program. (3) The approach to social change which these readings incorporate is not the approach of an observer who stands apart from on-going change and attempts to formulate its "necessary" and "inevitable" sequence and direction. The approach is rather that of the participant in change who is seeking dependable relationships between his own actions and the resulting effects upon the groups and social systems which he is trying to influence and improve. (4) Finally, the approach to human engineering which has guided the editors in compiling this volume is not a "value-free" approach. No attempt to engineer changes in people and social systems is without some value system, whether explicit or implicit. The value system which these readings on leadership and change incorporate is a democratic one. The further assumption is made that democratic values will be safeguarded in a process of change only as these values become conscious and explicit in the operating methodology of leadership and planning employed in the process. 

The Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program, a statewide project sponsored by the Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, has for several years tried to keep local school leadership in the state of Illinois in planning and carrying out changes in the secondary school curriculum. Leaders in the Program came to recognize that school people, as they grappled with the problems of curriculum change, were asking such questions as those suggested above. These leaders, also aware of the growing body of investigations and writings in the fields of human engineering and group development, requested the editors of the present volume to prepare a book of readings which would focus selections from these writings upon the questions typically confronted by leaders in curriculum change. The result was Bulletin Number 7 of the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program Series, which was released to the schools of Illinois in 1950. The wide demands for this bulletin both from within Illinois and from outside the state soon exhausted the original printing. This demand encouraged the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program to release the bulletin for general publication. 

The present volume is a slightly revised edition of Bulletin Number 7. We hope that it will help prospective teachers and administrators, teachers and administrators in service, and lay leaders concerned with education to see the important bearings of recent and continuing studies of group development upon the pressing task of improving the programs of our schools. 

We wish to acknowledge the helpful criticisms and suggestions which Professor C. W. Sanford, Director of the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program, and Professor B. Othanel Smith, College of Education, University of Illinois, have given to us. 

Two recent lines of intellectual development with which one of the editors has had the good fortune to be closely associated have contributed fundamentally to this book. The analysis of "practical judgment," by Professors R. Bruce Raup, B. Othanel Smith, George Axtelle and Kenneth D. Benne, has helped to make clear the interrelations of the method of science and the method of democracy in the intelligent management of decision and policymaking. The work of the National Training Laboratory in Group Development, sponsored by the National Education Association and the Research Center for Group Dynamics, University of Michigan, has helped to advance our understanding of group development in the interrelated contexts of training, research and social action. This latter work has built in some large part upon the frontier theorizing of Kurt Lewin and his associates. 

The editors make special acknowledgment to Dr. J. L. Moreno, who has pioneered in the areas currently referred to as psychodrama, sociodrama, role-playing, action dynamics, warming-up technique, group psychotherapy and sociometry, and who first introduced these terms into the literature, with some of the meanings emphasized in the present volume. To a great extent, the basic impetus for certain new trends in group and action research can be traced to the work of Moreno and his numerous associates, to such books as The Theatre of Spontaneity (German edition, 1923), Who Shall Survive? (1934), Sociodrama (1943), and Psychodrama (1945), and to the journal Sociometry (1936-1951).

May 1951


BOZIDAR MUNTYAN                                                   (italics in the original)

 Human Relations in Curriculum Change describes the process of behavior modification, the process of socialization, conscientization, democratization, etc. Using group dynamics, the pressure of peer rejection or approval, to generate tension between what one believes, his prior standards, and his desire to participate in group activities. This "oppressed knowledge" is given permission to be expressed, "liberation" before the group, and once expressed, if approved by the group, through dialogue, producing a "dialogical consciousness."  Trust in "oppressed knowledge" liberates each individual from their prior cultural standards, re-educating them to the group life, group think experience, called brainwashing.

An overview of Human Relations in Curriculum Change


Dean Gotcher

Using a theory of "human motivation," a facilitator is able to change the purpose and method of education while changing a person's paradigm.  Curriculum change is just a subtle way of saying paradigm shift. Motivation, according to this theory, is based on "needs satisfaction."  The use of environmental forces can be used to "augment", encourage, or "reduce," discourage, specific behavior. Through the use of group recognition or depreciation (group dynamics) each individual learns quickly what behavior is accepted and which is not.  

Though the fusing of  "dynamic psychology" with "applied anthropology and sociology" (socio-psychology) in problem solving situations a laboratory type condition, organizational change can be developed and utilized to fulfill Marx's and Freud's dream of creating a humanistic, non-patriarchal, dialectic, materialistic, based society.

According to Douglas McGregor, changes in  three aspects of personality, in knowledge, "philosophy", and skill, (value outlook) "must be accomplished if teachers or principals or parents or students are to change their conduct."   Kurt Lewin saw the re-education process as "a correct sequence of steps, correct timing, and a correct combination of individual and group treatments." Without cultural changes in personnel,  "reasonable" practices and theories in the school system will be resisted and rejected as "absurd and impractical."  Therefore before cultural change can take place some form of "mapping and estimating the strength of 'all' forces supporting and 'all' forces resisting a given change in the school program" must be identified.

A change in the relationship between "leadership" and the led (authority/national vs.. democratic/globalist system) depends upon the environment developed for the purpose of needs satisfaction. By making the object need satisfaction, in other words mankind and his desires, rather than obedience toward authority, participants shift their way of thinking from absolutes and sovereignty to relativism/humanism/socialism.

According to Douglas McGregor "1. All human behavior is directed toward the satisfaction of needs, 2. the individual will change his established ways of behaving for one of two reasons: to gain increased need satisfaction or to avoid decreased need satisfaction, and 3. 'augmentation' in the possibilities of needs satisfaction" by a patriarchal figure "an easy and natural method" must be replaced by and environment where participants are given an opportunity to satisfy need "though their own efforts ...  neither simple nor easy" to "induce behavior change."

Kurt Lewin saw three ways re-education (brainwashing) effected an individual: "It changes his cognitive structure, the way he sees the physical and social worlds, including all his facts, concepts, beliefs,. and expectations." "It modifies his valences and values, ... his attractions and aversions to groups and group standards, his feelings in regard to status differences, and his reactions to sources of approval or disapproval."  Otherwards before brainwashing a person thinks as an individual, respects authority and approval depends upon knowing the difference between right and wrong and doing what is right.  After brainwashing a person  thinks "group think," disrespects authority, and resents right, wrong thinking in favor of ambiguous, situational standards.  Thirdly brainwashing (re-education) "affects motoric action, involving the degree of the individual's control over his physical and social movements"  according to Lewin.  Thus the focus upon the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor domains in education, business, and government today.  What a person thinks, how he thinks, and how he behaves around change.

Lewin saw that "Social action no less than physical action is steered by perception," what seems to be.  He believed that "incorrect stereotypes (prejudices) are functionally equivalent to wrong concepts (theories)."  In other words, that black and white, right and wrong, antithesis thinking people think incorrectly.  "A change in action-ideology, a real acceptance of a changed set of facts and values, a change in the perceived social world----all three are but different expressions of the same process," This is the effect of brainwashing where one's actions are in agreement with his desires and inclinations, where one values what he accepts as reality, where the social world is not over and against him but he is at one with it.

As Lewin put it "If the individual complies merely from fear of punishment rather than through the dictates of his free will and conscience, the new set of values he is expected to accept does not assume in him the position of super-ego, and his re-education therefore remains unrealized."  The success of brainwashing depends upon a person willing participation in the new set of values.  The flesh, the imagination and social approval must all be realized, rationalized, harmonized, and actualized for the process to be successful. 

Lewin asks "how can free acceptance of a new system of values (Marxism) be brought about?" "The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to a group [when] a strong we-feeling is created, [by all experiencing] the same difficulties, and speaks the same language." When "the new system of values and beliefs dominates the individual's perception [and] is linked with the acceptance of a specific group, a particular role, a definite source of authority as a new points of reference," the individual is manipulated into a new world mindset. Individual "resistance" can be overcome by the "acceptance of new facts or values and acceptance of certain groups or roles."

"'Group decision,'" has been used for the most part with small groups and ... rests fundamentally upon the psychological concept of decision rather than upon a concept of gradual accommodation. The essence of the technique lies in the achieving of" group decision action.

According to Kurt Lewin culture is an "equilibrium in movement" and by simply changing the "constellation of forces" and taking "steps  to bring about the permanence of the new situation through self-regulation on the new level," all the individuals in the group will shift loyalty from the old system to the new system (from traditional, didactic thinking to transformational, dialectic thinking; capitalism/ nationalism to communism/globalism.)

Removal of counterforces (negative forces) is essential if "stationary quasi-equilibrium" (an established traditional culture) is to be destabilized to the point where change can be initiated and permanent change established.  Kurt Lewin saw "changing as a Three-step Procedure: Unfreezing, Moving, and [re] Freezing of a Level." "'Catharsis' seems to be necessary... to bring about deliberately an emotional stir-up" to "remove" prejudice and self-righteousness (religious beliefs and established cultural, local, and national principles.)

In chapter 7 FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS APPLIED TO A SCHOOL SITUATION the description of the traditional teacher over student to a teacher-student partnership is defined.  "Before effective plans for change can be made the present state of affairs must be defined as accurately as possible."  What forces are restraining change and what forces are available to be motivated into producing change. What negative forces restraining change can be switched to positive forces desiring, initiating, and sustaining change.

The following chart shows how the community is mapped by the change agent facilitator, for the purpose of dividing it and conquering it for the common cause of globalism and "peace."

  Note the similarity to the chart found in the training manual for police, Basic Facilitation skills for Law Enforcement, 1998  Kurt Lewin is given credit in the book for this chart.

  To be successful in stabilizing the new system the resisters of change (citizens of the community who want to maintain their rights) must be properly identified, converted, neutralized, marginalized, and/or removed.  "Determining the nature of the forces supplies the bases for change." Forces can be reduced, strengthened, or changed.

"From the analysis, the first step may be to determine what forces, if any, must be dealt with before a change can occur." According the this process parents and traditional teachers are the major obstacles to be dealt with if social change is to take place in the school system.

"As an aid to thinking about such relationships, we have developed the following simple schematic: 

1.   Existence for each individual may be seen as a continual struggle to satisfy needs, relieve tensions, maintain an equilibrium

2.   Most needs in our culture are satisfied through relation-ships with other individuals or groups of individuals

3.   For any individual the process of employing his relationship with other individuals as means for the satisfaction of his needs is an active rather than a passive process."

Kurt Lewin writes the "general principles for changing group culture" [are]" change of group atmosphere, (the system of values which governs the ideology of a group), changes of power constellation within the group (change in methods of leadership is probably the quickest way to bring about a change in the cultural atmosphere of a group.)" All this is done to change America from an Autocratic (traditional, family based society) to a Democratic (transformational, permissive based society.)

"This shift in roles cannot be accomplished by a 'hands off' policy. To apply the principle of 'individualistic freedom' merely leads to chaos.  Sometimes people must rather forcefully be made to see what democratic responsibility toward the group as a whole means."  The leaders must "use his power for active re-education." 

"The more the group members become converted to democracy and learn to play the roles of democracy as followers or leaders, the more can the power of the democratic leader shift to other ends than converting the group members."

"UTILIZATION OF DISSATISFACTION From Alice Miel," is the most revealing chapter of PART TWO of Human Relations in Curriculum Change.  Ways to develop and channel dissatisfaction for Globalist outcomes are to first "awaken and mobilize individuals.  Questionnaires, interviews, and observations of behavior in different situations all are valuable techniques if correctly used." Generalizations, questioning, and criticism must be "utilized at all stages of the process to keep crystallization from setting in."

These few statement from this major work for social and global change give just the basic foundation of the detailed procedure for changing every community in our nation.  Published in 1951 as the result of the first Marxist training Laboratory in Bethel Maine it is THE BOOK on controlling the citizens through group meeting procedures.  Based on the Directorate and Soviet systems of the French and Russian revolutions its complex and subtle methods are now used in almost every policy environment in America, including the church.  May God have mercy on our souls as we are turned into a police state.

Every nation which utilizes this process declares war on its own citizens.  From the 40's on we have been witnessing that war waged upon our parents, us, and our children, for the most part unchallenged. It is not simply a political battle, it is a spiritual battle with an enemy who hates God and those who worship and serve Him.  If you know him put on the whole amour of God and Stand ... having done all to Stand, If you don't, REPENT.  In Christ Jesus is our ONLY hope and our salvation. God looks upon the heart to determine what to do with a nation.  What does He see in your heart.  Judgment begins in the house of the Lord.

© Institution for Authority Research  Dean Gotcher 2006-2015 

Some quick flow charts used by "Change Agents" to changing groups. Source Human Relations in Curriculum Change

"... the further the group "grows" along these four dimensions, the more "mature" a group it is."

(1) How well is this group as a group progressing towards some production or action goal it has set for itself?

(2) How well is this group fitting its immediate goals into the broader framework of our democratic society?

(3) How well is this group utilizing the potentialities of its members to contribute towards its work goals?

(4) How well is this group "growing" its members, how well is it helping them become even better contributors, to assume a ‘vider variety of essential group roles, than their present potentialities allow them? The assumption being made is that

A group can gauge its growth by noting whether it is moving from the "no" to the "yes" end of the scale in each respect.

 1. Does every member make contributions to the discussion?

 2. Is every member Intensely involved in the discussion at all stages?

 3. Does the discussion move toward common agreements in terms of the solution of the problem being discussed? Do all members of the group understand and accept as important the problem being discussed?

 4. Is the discussion oriented toward decision and action at all times?

 5. Does the group accept and understand the conflicts encountered and move toward their resolution?

 6. Does the group recognize its need for information? Does it know how to go about getting such information?

 7. Does the group use resource persons or resource material as an aid to its own thinking, not as giving the final action-solution of its problem?

 8. Is the group unduly dependent upon its leader or on some of its members? Does the group use its leadership as an aid to common solutions, not as a source of final solutions?

 9. Is the leader accepted as a member of the group, with special functions to perform?

10. Is there an atmosphere of friendly cooperation in the group at all times particularly when conflicts of Ideas and points of view are encountered?

11. Does the group resent attempts at domination by its leader, one of its members, a clique of its members or by a visiting expert?

12. Is there a feeling of progress toward common goals?

13. Is the group "realistic" in its choice of problems and in setting its goals?

14. Does the discussion move readily toward decision when decision is required?

15. Does the group find it possible to dispense with the creaking machinery of parliamentary procedure?

Five basic democratic norms can be identified.

1. The engineering of change and the meeting of pressures on a group or organization toward change must be collaborative.

2. The engineering of change must be educational for the participants.

3. The engineering of change must be experimental.

4. The engineering of change must be task-oriented, that is, controlled by the requirements of the problem confronted and its effective solution, rather than oriented to the maintenance or extension of the prestige or power of those who originate contributions.

5. The principle of change must be antii;ii1)ulualiP tic, jd provide for the e.qf.abli.qh,ncnt of appropriate areas of privacy and for the development of persons as creative units of influence in our society.

Excerpts from:
Human Relations in Curriculum Change

edited by Kenneth Benne

(To more clearly understand the agenda of the following work by Kenneth Benne et. al. replace the word democratic with Marxist.)

"Our purpose is to deepen and broaden our understanding of democratic deliberation and its demands upon each of us who seriously and genuinely wishes to see this method survive and grow in managing the relations of men today."

"The administrator cannot function as a 'democratic leader' in the matter of policy formulation unless the teachers change with him by learning the role of democratic participants. Students will have to make, similar changes in student roles if their teacher is to effect stable changes in his own behavior in terms of democratic control in the classroom."

"What they must have is a method of social engineering whose operating procedures incorporate both democratic ideas and values and the knowledge and skills relevant to initiating and controlling the change process. Part IV of the book identifies five basic democratic norms and translates them into operational elements of a social engineering methodology."

"The change of a group atmosphere from autocracy or laissez faire to democracy through a democratic leader amounts to a re-education of the followers toward ‘democratic follower- ship.'"

"Without the members of the group being able and ready to take over those responsibilities which are essential for followership in a democracy, the democratic leader will be helpless."

"Changing a group atmosphere from autocracy toward democracy through a democratic leadership, therefore, means that the autocratic followers must shift toward a genuine acceptance of the role of democratic followers."

"Sometimes people must rather forcefully be made to see what democratic responsibility toward the group as a whole means."

"No elaborate set of procedural rules should be adopted by the group to begin with, Democratic leaders should always be aware that rules set early before the group understands the limitations which these rules apply to the discussion, even though set by formally democratic means, may serve autocratic ends later in the discussion."

"Democratic leaders cannot be trained autocratically; it is, on the other hand, of utmost importance that the trainer of democratic leaders establish and hold his position of leadership."

"As teachers work to build mature groups, self-objective about their group needs and ways of working, they are also working to build democratic leaders."

"Believers in democratic leadership have an entirely different conception of authority from that held by those who pin their faith on an elite. With the believers in an elite, authority is something one begins with; with the believers in democracy it is something one ends with. With the elite group, authority resides in persons by virtue of positions they hold; the view of the democratic group is that authority is distilled anew as persons in different capacities learn to work together and as responsibility of various kinds is placed on different shoulders. The democratic theory is that, in the last analysis, authority resides in the group, although It is delegated as occasion demands. The recognized leaders of the group are thus relieved of the necessity for 'maintaining' and demonstrating their authority. Such persons can cease their struggles for jurisdiction and power and concentrate instead on offering a maximum of service. This should have a beneficial effect upon the human relations round about them." 

"...democratic leadership and its success depends on—nay exactly is—an on-going process of education inherent in the situation."

"... persons should become capable of alternately exercising leadership and serving under the leadership of an ‘other.' Only thus will individuals develop their utmost power and become truly socialized."

"Establishing democracy in a group implies an active education. The democratic follower has to learn to play a role which implies, among other points, a fair share of responsibility toward the group and a sensitivity to other people's feeling.... "

"We can and should 'grow' democratic leaders."

"the formulation of a 'good' group, in a democratic society ... how its goals relate to the broader social framework of goals within which it operates. ...a good group is one which is conscious of its democratic responsibility."

"... the one criterion which may distinguish the democratically- oriented group from one operating within an authoritarian social framework. A wise dictator would probably want groups to achieve their 'work' goals as efficiently and rapidly as possible. He may see that full utilization of member-potential results in more effective group production and so advocate it. But it would defeat his own purposes to promote the kind of group interaction that helps persons become secure, independently functioning personalities, persons whose willingness to cooperate with others, to be socially inter dependent, arises from their recognition and acceptance of themselves as adequate, inter dependent, mature personalities. On the contrary, it would seem to be essential for the continuance of an authoritarian group or society to foster the kind of group process that promotes the individual's continuing emotional and intellectual dependence on the leader."

"Any proposed change not based on what people think the problems are will have rough sledding. Furthermore, the essence of democratic change lies in the need for all concerned to share in diagnosis of the problem and decision as to the direction and kind of change, as well as in carrying out the change. Such a process tends to involve people in desiring, rather than resisting, change."

" (1) This supervisor knows that in a democratic work group social control of the individual can usually come best from within the group itself; (2) he knows that every personal contact with a worker must be thought of in terms of its possible group implications."

"Democratic leadership is a long-time process."

"Democratic deliberation' puts a high premium upon the full participation of all persons concerned in a given action in determining the purposes and plans which are to guide it. The norms of 'democratic ethics', therefore, define the ideal conditions of participation by persons and groups in shaping the controlling policies of a social system."

"To deny rights to 'democratic' leadership in influencing the course of current educational change is, in effect, to sell out control of required changes to non-democratic leadership."

"the translation of the norms of 'democratic' ethics into principles of procedure in the engineering of deliberate changes in human conduct and interrelationships. if 'democratic' change is to occur in the school, these norms must be observed by educational leadership at all times, and the norms must also be communicated and taught to those participating along with effective methods and techniques for inducing changes in persons, groups, and social systems."

"The method of democratic deliberation is the best way which men have devised to attain common action in and through conflicting outlooks and purposes. Our purpose is to deepen and broaden our understanding of this method and its demands upon each of us who seriously and genuinely wishes to see this method survive and grow in managing the relations of men today. It will help us better to understand this method of social deliberation and control if we see it first over against alternative methods which now operate among us and which are finding eager advocates among groups and nations of men as more adequate and efficient than democratic method in meeting the crucial problems of social change in our time."

"When democratic persons and groups do compromise (and they will have to do so often), they should recognize that the compromise offers no abiding solution to the conflict and that further efforts to grow a common outlook through discussion, study, and deliberation—a common outlook which incorporates harmoniously the valid goals of opposing parties—should be continued."

"To suppress deviation and maintain the established pattern merely because it is established is to fail to uncover that deficiency and to meet it through remaking the pattern. In a democratic process deviation is welcomed as a possible source of improvement in common ways of thinking and acting. The exceptional viewpoint is studied and discussed with a view toward incorporating whatever stands the test of study and discussion into a revised common view. Conflict of views is seen as a creative opportunity for common improvement in a democratic group and not as a condition to be abolished and an occasion to coerce persons through social pressure to conform to the viewpoint of either of the parties to the conflict. Conflict, of course, does not lead automatically to improvement. But conflict controlled and directed by disciplined and appropriate methods of deliberation is regarded by the democrat as the source of all our major social gains."

"... democratic leadership seeks progressively to transfer leadership from a basis of group dependence on the leadership of a person or small group to the common intelligence and will of the whole group."

"Democratic method attempts to achieve an intelligent and uncoerced consensus.—the ideal method of social control is democratic co-operation."

"Our criticisms of the other ways of attaining common action have been based on our interpretation of democratic cooperation as, in general, the ideal way and one which we should seek to cultivate and extend."

"... democratic co-operation as a means of attaining common action. It is the purpose of this book to explore the method of democratic deliberation, ..."

"The ideal of democratic deliberation is an intelligent and uncoerced consensus concerning what should be done. This consensus will attempt to incorporate the valid insights and values of all parties in the conflict. The validity of these various insights and values is to be tested by the common study, deliberation, and discussion of the group and ultimately by the consequences of the common plan as it works out in action and as these consequences are evaluated by the common judgment of the group. It cannot be stressed too emphatically that the ideal goal of democratic co-operation is a consensus in the group concerning what should be done—a consensus based on and sustained by the deliberation of the group in the planning, execution, and evaluation of the common action of the group. No other method of social control depends so crucially on the deliberation of the whole group concerned in resolving the conflicts which for the time impede and prevent community of action. And, as a corollary, no other method of social control depends so centrally for its effective working-out upon the habituation and responsible discipline of all of its members in conscious methods of deliberation and discussion."

"... democratic co-operation will demand methods appropriate to all the types of conflict which arise in the course of group life to thwart and impede the common action of the group."

"deliberate, democratic methods will not work in making many policies under present conditions. This conclusion we cannot accept.... It is the faith of the democrat that no conflict can best be resolved unless all relevant and available human experience and insight is brought to bear on its resolution. No conflict is fully resolved until all have come, through deliberation, to accept the resolution as their own. The best common action on this view must involve the minds and purposes of those engaged in it as well as their bodily efforts. The methods of democratic co-operation are thus oriented, as we have stressed before, to the utilization of all available human resources—resources of purpose, experience, and insight in the planning, the execution, and the evaluation of common action. It is this full utilization of human resources in the guidance of common action that justifies the democrat's faith that democratic co-operation leads to policies and programs which are more relevant to existing conditions, more sensitive to all human values, more generally satisfying to the men concerned, and more enduring than policies and programs based on any other made of social co-operation."

"This way of looking at contemporary change seems also to imply that democratic ideology will find effective application in shaping contemporary culture only as it comes to operate in the processes by which planned social changes are formulated and effected and by which the necessary re-education of persons and groups to the behavior and relationships required by such planning is accomplished."

"Persons are, therefore, to be taken as ends in the sense that all the ways of a society, its institutions, its practices and its faiths, are to be judged ultimately by their services to the development of each member-person."

"... social policy is ... represent an induction from the unique insights and experiences of every person concerned with that policy."

"... the principle of participation by all persons affected by a social policy, as equals, in the processes by which such policy is formulated and reconstructed has been approved as a (if not the) central norm of democratic operation."

"... the central meaning of 'democracy', in operational terms, is to be found in a methodology by which the ways, the policies, the norms of an institution, the school for example, are to be reconstructed when its traditional ways have fallen into dispute, when the society is confronted by alternative and conflicting views as to the proper direction of social effort, when the institution faces, defines and moves to solve its confronting problems. The democratic norms acquire operational meaning when they are interpreted as requirements of a methodology for resolving social and inter-personal conflicts in such a way that an adequate, mutually satisfactory, and socially wise resolution is effected. In a social setting where social conflicts tend to take a collective form, where change is inherent in the situation, where planning has become a social necessity, the norms of democracy will acquire directive power and clear meaning only as they are seen to be required elements in a methodology of planned social change, of social engineering."

"There is no inherent contradiction between a democratic ideology and the training of persons and groups committed to and skilled in the stimulation and development of planned change in social patterns and in human relationships."

"In fact, the effective maintenance and extension of democratic values in industrial society seem to require the services of such practitioners. Educators or other change agents must, however, he trained in ways of stimulating and guiding change which incorporate the democratic norms as basic elements of their operating methodology. The valid test of the democratic character of any engineering operation lies in the degree to which the methodology employed in them conforms to these norms. It follows also that the best guarantee of the ethical operation of social engineers is that their basic training be focused in a methodology of planned change which unites the norms of democratic operation, relevant understandings of change processes and social structures, and skills in stimulating, inducing and stabilizing changes in persons and groups."

"... the need for collaboration across lines of divergent action interests in a given situation requiring change, individuals and groups must be helped to see that the task is to discover and construct a common interest out of the conflicting interests which they bring to the interpretation of the situation and to the direction of changes in it."

"... collaboration required is across lines of 'theory' and 'practice'."

"Neither of these modes of collaboration, between persons and groups with different interests in change and between 'theorists' and 'practitioners', comes 'naturally' to people."

"Every change operation must, in this sense, be conceived as an educational enterprise. It is important that this educational requirement of democratic engineering be interpreted dynamically instead of statically."

"... to see all social arrangements as subject to modification and alteration ..."

"... an 'experimental' attitude toward all social arrangements."

"... all who collaborate must be trained toward an experimental attitude and a 'research' approach toward social problems."

"... all educational practitioners, children and laymen participating in educational change become experimental in their attitude toward relationship problems faced and 'research-minded' in their search for and evaluation of solutions ..."

"... democratic change must be anti-authoritarian."

"Democratic persons must become skilled in inhibiting their tendencies to defend and promote ideas which are in need of objective evaluation and reformulation. It is important that persons achieve sensitivity in assessing the sources of influence upon themselves and to differentiate between dependence upon status figures and dependence upon fact-oriented and task-oriented influences."

"To the democratic planner 'dogmas' are seen methodologically as 'intellectual' attempts to save some privileged position from open collective criticism and modification. How to convert the perception of favored principles by those who hold them from dogmas to 'hypotheses' remains a central problem for democratic social engineers."

"The 'collective' character of our more pressing problems of change has been suggested and the necessity for 'collective' solutions affirmed." "... a democratic methodology must be anti-individualistic."

"In the liberal revolt against social restraints upon economic enterprise imposed by medieval culture and later against 'mercantilist' restraints, a rationale for individual rights was sought in a conception of the 'natural' as over against the 'social' grounding of such rights. Individuals, naturally equipped with mind and conscience independent of social experience, were set over against a contractual and artificial system of social relationships and conventions. What was in fact an alternative social ideal was thus projected into a theory of the nature of human nature. Scientific studies of human nature have indicated that this rationalization of liberal ideology involved a false psychology and anthropology. Individual personalities are now seen to be products of social experience. Individuation and socialization, far from being capable of intelligible opposition, are generally regarded as alternative aspects of the same process of growth into the ways of a social culture. The norms and standards by which a person thinks and judges are learned in the processes by which he is acculturated. Human rights and duties are grounded in the institutions and ideologies of a culture, not in a nature independent of man's social relationships. If human rights are to be guaranteed, they must be guaranteed by appropriate social, political, and economic controls of human behavior, not by opposition to these."

"If the realization of this value is blocked by certain social arrangements, as undoubtedly it often is today, the task is to change these social arrangements. And such change today requires collective planning and action not reliance upon 'providential' processes of natural or historical selection which have ceased to be providential under conditions of advancing industrialization or upon blind resistance to all collective action as inherently opposed to individuality."

"The methodological correlate of individualism which democratic ideology leads us to oppose is the elevation of unchecked private, individual judgment as an ultimate arbiter in the control of human conduct."

"But the determination of the proper boundaries of these areas must, in an interdependent society, be based on a collective judgment. The rights of private judgment can be defensibly defined and enforced on a democratic basis only by processes of collaborative planning. They cannot be guaranteed by dogmas concerning the nature of man."

"The methodology of planned change which is consistent with democratic ideology must elevate informed and experimental collective judgment over unchecked private judgment. A methodology of training for participation in planned change must emphasize the development of skills necessary for creating common public judgments out of the disciplined conflict of 'private' points of view. It must develop persons who see non-influenceability of private convictions in joint deliberations as a vice rather than a virtue. It is in this sense that democratic planning for change must be anti-individualistic."

"Groups and organizations should be helped to define and redefine those areas of life in which common values and standards are necessary and where efforts to build common out of contrasting beliefs and practices are required. In the same process, areas of life where divergence in standard and belief is not alone to be tolerated but encouraged and supported need to be well-defined. To stress the essential character of certain universals in group life is in no way to contradict the need for special and unique developments where threats to common welfare are not involved. The democratic social engineer seeks to establish and support this essential distinction in the groups or organizations with whom he work ."

"... planned change requires leadership by persons equipped with the understandings, skills and techniques of the social engineer."

"The first task of believers in democratic ethics is, therefore, the theoretical job of translating democratic values into methodological norms for the control of processes of planned change. The second task is the practical one of devising ways, in training teachers or others as social engineers, to develop the skills and techniques for effective stimulation and induction of change in persons and groups and the social-psychological knowledge required for accurate diagnosis of change-situations in integral relation to developing commitments to the norms of democratic methodology."

"Those who set out to stimulate changes in the school program require discipline in the diagnosis of the changes that are possible within the social system of the school and the overlapping social systems of school and community."

"... inclusive discipline lies in a methodology of problem-solving."

"... the methodology of problem-solving for curriculum change is a methodology of practical deliberation."

''... solutions must incorporate, judgments of value, judgments of 'what we ought to do', as well as judgments of fact and judgments of effective means to employ."

"... to build common agreement concerning the values we should strive for in our schools as well as common agreement as to what 'facts' we can depend on ..."

"These cases are often the most difficult to cope with because the principles are so deeply embedded in characters, in the moral structure of the community. All judgments of practice in some degree, particularly as they involve practical generalization, involve therewith the characters of the judgers and of their communities. Such deep-seated lifenorms do not change easily."

" . . . decision, policy, practical generalization, the latter meaning broad principles of social-moral action or general norms of private and public conduct. The making, or remaking, of all these forms of judgment is the function of practical intelligence. The soundness of any one of them depends upon the soundness of the others."

"One type of practical problem which often calls for resolution is that in which the general principles or deep seated life norms are clear and unshaken. So long as the members of the group have thus a stable, common mind about what is desired or desirable, the solving of the problem is relatively simple. It consists in finding ways and means of achieving what is commonly desired. Often, in such cases, we call in the technical expert on how to do what we all want done."

"The practical task of intelligence in this kind of case—for Pearl Harbors do not often come—is to rediscover the basic character of the community, its common ideals, beliefs, and goals. Once this has been done, the case becomes one of the first type described above."

"One type of practical problem which often calls for resolution is that in which the general principles or deep seated life norms are clear and unshaken. So long as the members of the group have thus a stable, common mind about what is desired or desirable, the solving of the problem is relatively simple. It consists in finding ways and means of achieving what is commonly desired. Often, in such cases, we call in the technical expert on how to do what we all want done."

"A third type of problem is that in which there is deep cleavage in orientation, where ideals, attitudes, and goals are in basic conflict. Here the problem is more difficult and usually requires more time for solution. The need is for a restructuring of the community itself. This means often the profound reshaping of characters. Probably our people have this kind of problem today more acutely than at any other time in their history. We need community of understanding and belief and purpose where such does not now exist and where its absence is increasingly disastrous."

"Hope for a better world depends upon how successfully people find common grounds when there are needed."

"These three phases are: (1) the formulation of purpose—forming a desired end, a desired state of affairs, a preferred and chosen goal; (2) the description of existing conditions—getting the facts, defining relationships, noting possibilities; and (3) the formation of a plan of action—steps which promise best to transform existing conditions into conditions that are desired."

"A clear purpose, for instance, can come often only through the fusion and interpenetration of outlooks. This is a creative act loaded with possibilities for releasing new energies and achieving new heights of human satisfaction."

"For the third phase, we are almost as badly equipped as for the first. It involves the fusion of fact and desire, of present and future, of existing means and projected ends."

"And plans of action not based on accurate understanding of conditions and not directed by considered purpose are only leaps into the dark."

"... when differing points of view and conflicting interests and purposes move with their mutual tensions toward a fusion of goal and into a concerted plan of action."

"Disraeli's observation ... a practical man is one who tends to repeat the errors of his forefathers."

"Common actions need to be based on common persuasions."

"The first phase of practical judgment: clarification of common purpose—the projection of a desired state of affairs. The notion of should carries a universal reference "

"The characters and orientations of judgers become objectified in the first phase of judgment."

"The second phase of practical judgment: the survey and assessment of the existing state of affairs."

"The third phase of practical judgment: the fusion of the ideal and existent in a program of action."

"Conceptions of limits and possibilities are put to the test through the interpenetration of phases."

"Testing our conceptions of 'necessity.' 'necessities' must undergo the challenge of competing desires before being too early accounted 'necessities.' 'Necessities' can be changed, in fact must be changed, in a community where conflicts among the imperatives of different groups are present, if commonly acceptable policies and programs are eventually to prevail."

"Testing our notions of the desirable."

"The interpenetration of the functions of the three phases is thus one of the chief sources to which we must look for the elements in a discipline of practical judgment."

"... the total judgment shapes up in a common course of action and a common acceptance of the actions as possible, necessary, desirable, and efficient. . ."

"... changing human relations; for, inevitably, it must consider not only what 'is' and what 'can be' but also, what 'ought to be'. A problem-solving method of such breadth is necessary to give educational leadership the criteria for locating and defining needed changes, for planning the means to execute them, for weighing the adequacy of proposed solutions, and for evaluating the consequences after acting upon these proposals."

Source: Human Relations in Curriculum Change edited by Kenneth Benne

© Institution for Authority Research, Dean Gotcher 2015