Human Relations and Curriculum Change,
"A Cookbook For Humans."
A Marxist training manual.
My son, forget not my law; but let thine heart keep my commandments: For length of days, and long life, and peace, shall they add to thee. Let not mercy and truth forsake thee: bind them about thy neck; write them upon the table of thine heart: So shalt thou find favour and good understanding in the sight of God and man.
Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil. It shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to thy bones.
Honour the LORD with thy substance, and with the firstfruits of all thine increase: So shall thy barns be filled with plenty, and thy presses shall burst out with new wine.
My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD; neither be weary of his correction: For whom the LORD loveth he correcteth; even as a father the son in whom he delighteth.
Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding. For the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold. She is more precious than rubies: and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her. Length of days is in her right hand; and in her left hand riches and honour. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her: and happy is every one that retaineth her.
The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens. By his knowledge the depths are broken up, and the clouds drop down the dew. My son, let not them depart from thine eyes: keep sound wisdom and discretion:
So shall they be life unto thy soul, and grace to thy neck. Then shalt thou walk in thy way safely, and thy foot shall not stumble.
When thou liest down, thou shalt not be afraid: yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sleep shall be sweet.
Be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the desolation of the wicked, when it cometh. For the LORD shall be thy confidence, and shall keep thy foot from being taken.
Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it. Say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come again, and to morrow I will give; when thou hast it by thee. Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee.
Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done thee no harm. Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.
For the froward is abomination to the LORD: but his secret is with the righteous. The curse of the LORD is in the house of the wicked: but he blesseth the habitation of the just. Surely he scorneth the scorners: but he giveth grace unto the lowly. The wise shall inherit glory: but shame shall be the promotion of fools.
Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.
For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds. Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin. And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.
If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live? For they verily for a few days chastened us after their own pleasure; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby.
Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees; And make straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed. Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord: Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled; Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright. For ye know how that afterward, when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected: for he found no place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears.
For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more: (For they could not endure that which was commanded, And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or thrust through with a dart: And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:) But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven: Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven. And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear: For our God is a consuming fire.
An overview of Human Relations in Curriculum Change.
Some quick flow charts used by "Change Agents."
Excerpts from: Human Relations in Curriculum Change
Human Relations in Curriculum Change (pdf format)
Edited by Kenneth Benne
"A Cookbook For Humans"
(the following is from Human Relations in Curriculum Change)
IN RECENT YEARS more and more attention has been focused on ways and means of effecting changes in school programs. In the Secondary School Curriculum Program in the State of Illinois, for example, a great deal of effort has been directed toward utilizing the best that is known regarding procedures for individual and group development. The present volume exemplifies this effort, having been originally issued as a bulletin published for use in Illinois, under the sponsorship of the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in cooperation with institutions of higher learning, industry, agriculture, labor, and twenty-nine other lay and professional groups and organizations.
HUMAN RELATIONS IN CURRICULUM CHANGE has proved its value for individuals and groups interested in the improvement of education. It has been received with enthusiasm and is being used extensively by the faculties of many schools, by parent and other lay groups, and by undergraduate and graduate students in institutions of higher learning. The volume presents a clear-cut theory basic to effective group procedure together with many practical suggestions regarding ways and means of implementing this theory.
Too much cannot be said regarding the help received from this publication by teachers, administrators, pupils, parents, and citizens who are not parents of children in school who have been working on projects sponsored by the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program. Practice of the good group procedures suggested in this book has led to increasingly effective work in furnishing the best possible educational opportunities for the youth in schools. Certainly this volume has made a very significant contribution to progress in Illinois schools and communities. It is hoped that all educators, both in service and in training, will find it similarly useful and significant.
VERNON I, NICKEL
Superintendent of Public Instruction State of Illinois
TEACHERS, ADMINISTRATORS AND LAYMEN who have sought seriously to produce changes in the program of the school recognize the central importance and difficulty of managing the "human factors" inescapably involved in such changes. For, whatever else it may include, a change in the curriculum is a change in the people concerned-in teachers, in students, in parents and other laymen,. in administrators. The people concerned must come to understand and accept the different pattern of schooling. This means change in their knowledge pertinent to the school and its programs and purposes. Typically, people involved who were loyal to the older pattern must be helped to transfer their allegiance to the new. This means change in their values with respect to education. Moreover, the people concerned must do some things differently from the way in which they did them before the change. This means changes in their skills. And, most difficult to predict and control, are changes in the relationships among personnel which changes in the program typically require. A changed way of working for the teacher in the classroom, for example, means changed expectations on the part of the teacher with respect to the students and their behavior as well as changed expectations on the part of the students with respect to the teacher and his behavior. If the change is a sizable one, new reciprocal relations between teachers and parents, students and parents, teachers and supervisors will also have to be worked out. This means changes in the relations of people.
As those who seek to change the curriculum recognize that this involves interrelated changes in the knowledge, values, skills and relations of the people concerned, many baffling questions are bound to arise. Some of these questions have to do with the nature of change in people and in social systems such as the school. What underlies resistance to change on the part of people, even when the change seems well supported by facts and evaluated experience? Why do changes in the school, even though enthusiastically launched in the beginning, often slip back into the older patterns? Who are likely to be the leaders in any particular change? And what actually is "leadership"?
Other questions center on the technology of bringing about change, questions of how to accomplish it. It is widely recognized that changes in the school program cannot be brought about without the organization and use of groups--committees and meetings of various kinds and sizes--for discussion, study, planning and decision about changes which are possible and desirable. Who should be on a committee called to plan a given change? How big should a committee be? How can committees be helped to function more productively than they often do? How can faculty meetings or meetings of students, faculty and parents generate more light and less heat?
Frequently, educational leadership is worried about the ethics of deliberately setting out to change people, their ideas, their values, their skills and their relationships. Under what conditions does leadership in change function democratically? What right has a teacher to try to change students and parents? How can groups and individuals be protected from undemocratic manipulation?
Still other questions focus on the discipline which leaders in change need in order to stimulate and coordinate changes, ethically, cooperatively and efficiently. These questions usually have to do with the methodology to be used in reaching decisions, in making policies and in reconstructing points of view. How can valid decisions and policies be best reached by a group? And what is validity with respect to a decision or policy? How can people think together validly when they differ markedly in their points of view?
Questions about the nature of change, the technology of change, the ethics of change and the methodology of change are being asked widely by teachers, administrators and lay leaders today. What materials are available to help them answer these questions?
In the last few years there has been accumulating a small but growing body of investigations and writings in the fields of "human engineering" and "group development." These investigations and writings, from which the selections in this book have been drawn, have at least four distinctive characteristics. (1) They attempt to focus the resources of various social sciences, including psychology, upon the problems of inducing and controlling changes in social systems, including the face-to-face group. The principles and concepts involved thus represent a fusion of resources from several social sciences. (2) They involve the collaboration of social scientists and social practitioners, including educators, in their formulation and testing. No hypothesis in this body of writings has been fully tested. Nor will it be tested fully until it has been used widely in thoughtful experimentation with actual social changes. The school offers an important potential laboratory for the development of a truly experimental social science. Experimentally minded school workers can develop and improve the hypotheses suggested in these readings as they put them to the test in planning and evaluating changes in the school program. (3) The approach to social change which these readings incorporate is not the approach of an observer who stands apart from on-going change and attempts to formulate its "necessary" and "inevitable" sequence and direction. The approach is rather that of the participant in change who is seeking dependable relationships between his own actions and the resulting effects upon the groups and social systems which he is trying to influence and improve. (4) Finally, the approach to human engineering which has guided the editors in compiling this volume is not a "value-free" approach. No attempt to engineer changes in people and social systems is without some value system, whether explicit or implicit. The value system which these readings on leadership and change incorporate is a democratic one. The further assumption is made that democratic values will be safeguarded in a process of change only as these values become conscious and explicit in the operating methodology of leadership and planning employed in the process.
The Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program, a statewide project sponsored by the Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, has for several years tried to keep local school leadership in the state of Illinois in planning and carrying out changes in the secondary school curriculum. Leaders in the Program came to recognize that school people, as they grappled with the problems of curriculum change, were asking such questions as those suggested above. These leaders, also aware of the growing body of investigations and writings in the fields of human engineering and group development, requested the editors of the present volume to prepare a book of readings which would focus selections from these writings upon the questions typically confronted by leaders in curriculum change. The result was Bulletin Number 7 of the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program Series, which was released to the schools of Illinois in 1950. The wide demands for this bulletin both from within Illinois and from outside the state soon exhausted the original printing. This demand encouraged the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program to release the bulletin for general publication.
The present volume is a slightly revised edition of Bulletin Number 7. We hope that it will help prospective teachers and administrators, teachers and administrators in service, and lay leaders concerned with education to see the important bearings of recent and continuing studies of group development upon the pressing task of improving the programs of our schools.
We wish to acknowledge the helpful criticisms and suggestions which Professor C. W. Sanford, Director of the Illinois Secondary School Curriculum Program, and Professor B. Othanel Smith, College of Education, University of Illinois, have given to us.
Two recent lines of intellectual development with which one of the editors has had the good fortune to be closely associated have contributed fundamentally to this book. The analysis of "practical judgment," by Professors R. Bruce Raup, B. Othanel Smith, George Axtelle and Kenneth D. Benne, has helped to make clear the interrelations of the method of science and the method of democracy in the intelligent management of decision and policymaking. The work of the National Training Laboratory in Group Development, sponsored by the National Education Association and the Research Center for Group Dynamics, University of Michigan, has helped to advance our understanding of group development in the interrelated contexts of training, research and social action. This latter work has built in some large part upon the frontier theorizing of Kurt Lewin and his associates.
The editors make special acknowledgment to Dr. J. L. Moreno, who has pioneered in the areas currently referred to as psychodrama, sociodrama, role-playing, action dynamics, warming-up technique, group psychotherapy and sociometry, and who first introduced these terms into the literature, with some of the meanings emphasized in the present volume. To a great extent, the basic impetus for certain new trends in group and action research can be traced to the work of Moreno and his numerous associates, to such books as The Theatre of Spontaneity (German edition, 1923), Who Shall Survive? (1934), Sociodrama (1943), and Psychodrama (1945), and to the journal Sociometry (1936-1951).
KENNETH D. BENNE
BOZIDAR MUNTYAN (italics in the original)
Using a theory of "human motivation," a facilitator is able to change the purpose and method of education while changing a person's paradigm. Curriculum change is just a subtle way of saying paradigm shift. Motivation, according to this theory, is based on "needs satisfaction." The use of environmental forces can be used to "augment", encourage, or "reduce," discourage, specific behavior. Through the use of group recognition or depreciation (group dynamics) each individual learns quickly what behavior is accepted and which is not.
Though the fusing of "dynamic psychology" with "applied anthropology and sociology" (socio-psychology) in problem solving situations a laboratory type condition, organizational change can be developed and utilized to fulfill Marx's and Freud's dream of creating a humanistic, non-patriarchal, dialectic, materialistic, based society.
According to Douglas McGregor, changes in three aspects of personality, in knowledge, "philosophy", and skill, (value outlook) "must be accomplished if teachers or principals or parents or students are to change their conduct." Kurt Lewin saw the re-education process as "a correct sequence of steps, correct timing, and a correct combination of individual and group treatments." Without cultural changes in personnel, "reasonable" practices and theories in the school system will be resisted and rejected as "absurd and impractical." Therefore before cultural change can take place some form of "mapping and estimating the strength of 'all' forces supporting and 'all' forces resisting a given change in the school program" must be identified.
A change in the relationship between "leadership" and the led (authority/national vs.. democratic/globalist system) depends upon the environment developed for the purpose of needs satisfaction. By making the object need satisfaction, in other words mankind and his desires, rather than obedience toward authority, participants shift their way of thinking from absolutes and sovereignty to relativism/humanism/socialism.
According to Douglas McGregor "1. All human behavior is directed toward the satisfaction of needs, 2. the individual will change his established ways of behaving for one of two reasons: to gain increased need satisfaction or to avoid decreased need satisfaction, and 3. 'augmentation' in the possibilities of needs satisfaction" by a patriarchal figure "an easy and natural method" must be replaced by and environment where participants are given an opportunity to satisfy need "though their own efforts ... neither simple nor easy" to "induce behavior change."
Kurt Lewin saw three ways re-education (brainwashing) effected an individual: "It changes his cognitive structure, the way he sees the physical and social worlds, including all his facts, concepts, beliefs,. and expectations." "It modifies his valences and values, ... his attractions and aversions to groups and group standards, his feelings in regard to status differences, and his reactions to sources of approval or disapproval." Otherwards before brainwashing a person thinks as an individual, respects authority and approval depends upon knowing the difference between right and wrong and doing what is right. After brainwashing a person thinks "group think," disrespects authority, and resents right, wrong thinking in favor of ambiguous, situational standards. Thirdly brainwashing (re-education) "affects motoric action, involving the degree of the individual's control over his physical and social movements" according to Lewin. Thus the focus upon the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor domains in education, business, and government today. What a person thinks, how he thinks, and how he behaves around change.
Lewin saw that "Social action no less than physical action is steered by perception," what seems to be. He believed that "incorrect stereotypes (prejudices) are functionally equivalent to wrong concepts (theories)." In other words, that black and white, right and wrong, antithesis thinking people think incorrectly. "A change in action-ideology, a real acceptance of a changed set of facts and values, a change in the perceived social world----all three are but different expressions of the same process," This is the effect of brainwashing where one's actions are in agreement with his desires and inclinations, where one values what he accepts as reality, where the social world is not over and against him but he is at one with it.
As Lewin put it "If the individual complies merely from fear of punishment rather than through the dictates of his free will and conscience, the new set of values he is expected to accept does not assume in him the position of super-ego, and his re-education therefore remains unrealized." The success of brainwashing depends upon a person willing participation in the new set of values. The flesh, the imagination and social approval must all be realized, rationalized, harmonized, and actualized for the process to be successful.
Lewin asks "how can free acceptance of a new system of values (Marxism) be brought about?" "The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to a group [when] a strong we-feeling is created, [by all experiencing] the same difficulties, and speaks the same language." When "the new system of values and beliefs dominates the individual's perception [and] is linked with the acceptance of a specific group, a particular role, a definite source of authority as a new points of reference," the individual is manipulated into a new world mindset. Individual "resistance" can be overcome by the "acceptance of new facts or values and acceptance of certain groups or roles."
"'Group decision,'" has been used for the most part with small groups and ... rests fundamentally upon the psychological concept of decision rather than upon a concept of gradual accommodation. The essence of the technique lies in the achieving of" group decision action.
According to Kurt Lewin culture is an "equilibrium in movement" and by simply changing the "constellation of forces" and taking "steps to bring about the permanence of the new situation through self-regulation on the new level," all the individuals in the group will shift loyalty from the old system to the new system (from traditional, didactic thinking to transformational, dialectic thinking; capitalism/ nationalism to communism/globalism.)
Removal of counterforces (negative forces) is essential if "stationary quasi-equilibrium" (an established traditional culture) is to be destabilized to the point where change can be initiated and permanent change established. Kurt Lewin saw "changing as a Three-step Procedure: Unfreezing, Moving, and [re] Freezing of a Level." "'Catharsis' seems to be necessary... to bring about deliberately an emotional stir-up" to "remove" prejudice and self-righteousness (religious beliefs and established cultural, local, and national principles.)
In chapter 7 FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS APPLIED TO A SCHOOL SITUATION the description of the traditional teacher over student to a teacher-student partnership is defined. "Before effective plans for change can be made the present state of affairs must be defined as accurately as possible." What forces are restraining change and what forces are available to be motivated into producing change. What negative forces restraining change can be switched to positive forces desiring, initiating, and sustaining change.
The following chart shows how the community is mapped by the change agent facilitator, for the purpose of dividing it and conquering it for the common cause of globalism and "peace."
Note the similarity to the chart found in the training manual for police, Basic Facilitation skills for Law Enforcement, 1998 Kurt Lewin is given credit in the book for this chart.
To be successful in stabilizing the new system the resisters of change (citizens of the community who want to maintain their rights) must be properly identified, converted, neutralized, marginalized, and/or removed. "Determining the nature of the forces supplies the bases for change." Forces can be reduced, strengthened, or changed.
"From the analysis, the first step may be to determine what forces, if any, must be dealt with before a change can occur." According the this process parents and traditional teachers are the major obstacles to be dealt with if social change is to take place in the school system.
"As an aid to thinking about such relationships, we have developed the following simple schematic:
1. Existence for each individual may be seen as a continual struggle to satisfy needs, relieve tensions, maintain an equilibrium
2. Most needs in our culture are satisfied through relation-ships with other individuals or groups of individuals
3. For any individual the process of employing his relationship with other individuals as means for the satisfaction of his needs is an active rather than a passive process."
Kurt Lewin writes the "general principles for changing group culture" [are]" change of group atmosphere, (the system of values which governs the ideology of a group), changes of power constellation within the group (change in methods of leadership is probably the quickest way to bring about a change in the cultural atmosphere of a group.)" All this is done to change America from an Autocratic (traditional, family based society) to a Democratic (transformational, permissive based society.)
"This shift in roles cannot be accomplished by a 'hands off' policy. To apply the principle of 'individualistic freedom' merely leads to chaos. Sometimes people must rather forcefully be made to see what democratic responsibility toward the group as a whole means." The leaders must "use his power for active re-education."
"The more the group members become converted to democracy and learn to play the roles of democracy as followers or leaders, the more can the power of the democratic leader shift to other ends than converting the group members."
"UTILIZATION OF DISSATISFACTION From Alice Miel," is the most revealing chapter of PART TWO of Human Relations in Curriculum Change. Ways to develop and channel dissatisfaction for Globalist outcomes are to first "awaken and mobilize individuals. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations of behavior in different situations all are valuable techniques if correctly used." Generalizations, questioning, and criticism must be "utilized at all stages of the process to keep crystallization from setting in."
These few statement from this major work for social and global change give just the basic foundation of the detailed procedure for changing every community in our nation. Published in 1951 as the result of the first Marxist training Laboratory in Bethel Maine it is THE BOOK on controlling the citizens through group meeting procedures. Based on the Directorate and Soviet systems of the French and Russian revolutions its complex and subtle methods are now used in almost every policy environment in America, including the church. May God have mercy on our souls as we are turned into a police state.
Every nation which utilizes this process declares war on its own citizens. From the 40's on we have been witnessing that war waged upon our parents, us, and our children, for the most part unchallenged. It is not simply a political battle, it is a spiritual battle with an enemy who hates God and those who worship and serve Him. If you know him put on the whole amour of God and Stand ... having done all to Stand, If you don't, REPENT. In Christ Jesus is our ONLY hope and our salvation. God looks upon the heart to determine what to do with a nation. What does He see in your heart. Judgment begins in the house of the Lord.
© Institution for Authority Research Dean Gotcher 2006-2015
Some quick flow charts used by "Change Agents" to changing groups. Source Human Relations in Curriculum Change
© Institution for Authority Research, Dean Gotcher 2015