Replacing faith with sight, belief with theory, facts and truth with opinion, through the praxis of dialoguing opinions to a consensus.
"With the devaluation of the epistemic authority of the God's eye view, moral commands lose their religious as well as their metaphysical foundation." "The fact that moral practice is no longer tied to the individual's expectation of salvation and an exemplary conduct of life through the person of a redemptive God and the divine plan for salvation has two unwelcome consequences. On the one hand, moral knowledge becomes detached from moral motivation, and on the other, the concept of morally right action becomes differentiated from the conception of a good or godly life. … uncoupling morality from questions of the good life leads to a motivational deficit. Because there is no profane substitute for the hope of personal salvation, we lose the strongest motive for obeying moral commands." "With the loss of its foundation in the religious promise of salvation, the meaning of normative obligation also changes. The differentiation between strict duties and less binding values, between what is morally right and what is ethically worth striving for, already sharpens moral validity into a normativity to which impartial judgment alone is adequate [resulting in a] shift in perspective from God to human beings..." (Jürgen Habermas, Communicative Ethics) Habermas was a Transformational Marxist associated with the Frankfurt School, a group of Marxists who, having merged Marx with Freud in Germany, came to America in the early 30's (when Hitler became Chancellor), continuing their work here. Their work has transformed American into a Marxist culture, subject to the praxis of dialectic 'reasoning,' i.e., theory and practice.