Approach Pleasure - Avoid Pain
"Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus." Philippians 4:6, 7 (Careful: anxious, troubled with cares)
"Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time: Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you." 1 Peter 6:6, 7
"These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world." John 16:33
"Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid." John 14:27
dopamine: promotes desire, pleasure "Ahhhh", Pollyanna
"How do I love thee, let me count the ways."
Reinforces pleasure behavior―attraction,
"first love," infatuation.
Key initiator of muscle movement.
Initiates environmental awareness―thought
"This experience is worth paying attention to."
dopaminergic system necessary for wanting the gratifying object
dopamine acts as a facilitating factor in learning
to much produces an unpleasant feeling.
to little produces boredom and inattentiveness.
lack of equals depression, anger, suicide
all habitual chemicals associate with dopamine,
either replicate, stimulate, or inhibit its reuptake.
Cortex receives reward stimulus signals to
the ventral tegmental area (VTA) releases dopamine into:
1. nucleus accumbens
activates motor functions
3. the amgdala
has about twelve sub-regions.
involved in fear reactions
4. prefrontal cortex
the substantia nigra releases dopaime into:
medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
activates gratification action
the desire/action/satisfaction cycle
mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system
monoamines as a neurotransmitter
eight major dopaminergic pathways in the brain associated with the reward circuit
the mesolimbic pathway.
important for memory and for motivating behaviours
blocking this pathway reduce the intense emotions caused by schizophrenia
the mesocortical pathway
projects to the frontal cortex and surrounding structures.
malfunction in this pathway might cause symptoms of schizophrenia—hallucinations and confusion in thinking.
involved in motor control
Breakdown is associated with the trembling and muscular rigidity of Parkinson's disease.
connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
influences the secretion of prolactin
serotonin: effects satiety, inhibition, and craving "Gimmee, gimmee, gimmee"
tranquility, reason, calm
lack of seeks starchy foods, etc.
known for its role in obsessive-compulsive disorder
known for its role in depression
all drugs which increase dopamine production in the nucleus accumbens, reduces serotonin
9 serotonergic nuclei in the brainstem
dorsal nuclei and medial raphe nuclei
only source of serotonin in the anterior portions of the central nervous system
15 types of serotonin receptors
endorphin: rush "Wow"
GABA: sleep "szzzzzz"
the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
most widespread neurotransmitters in several parts of the brain:
the amygdala, and
the superior and inferior colliculi
GABA agonists can induce comas
glutamate: excitement "yippee"
conveys agreeable or disagreeable affective tones to perception.
essential for decoding emotions
stimuli that are threatening to the organism
triggers release of adrenalin by the adrenal glands.
adrenalin helps memories to be encoded in
the hippocampus and
the temporal lobe
(Putting yourself in another persons place of tragedy.)
the foundation of memory
explicit long-term memories
preserves the agreeable memories
all of the details of the environment